Saturday, September 29, 2012

Station Identification and Test Pattern


File:Dock Street Annapolis.JPG

                                                               Looking Towards Dock Street From Ego Alley


READER ASSISTANCE STILL SOUGHT: Of all of our "special pages" none is longer or more technically problematic , than our "NEWS SERVICE". If you are a regular reader of the Headline Service please take some time this weekend to review our "Month in Review Section", and send us a comment on any headlines that you think we should retain indefinitely. Thanks

On Saturday we posted two articles explaining our call for the retirement or removal from office of  Senator John McCain. Today, Sunday, we provide you with two short videos that introduce you to people and jobs he proposes to eliminate, and the vessels he would allow to be run on our waters by foreigners. This is the real Jones Act Fleet that he has called "laughable". This is why despite his war hero status, and long and honorable service we have no choice but to call for his removal. Please read all of our posts and watch the videos. This was a hard decision for us, we are not Democrats. We are mostly Republican and very knowledgeable about the Jones Act Fleets and industries and very concerned when they face enemies as powerful as Senator McCain. We see only one option after his repeated attempts to kill this American enterprise, removal from power. That will require action by the people of Arizona, not a community known for widespread maritime expertise or concerns. 

On the lighter side the Sunday Funnies are posted

.The National Anthem this morning was performed by:  The Cactus Cuties.  Click on the link below the flag to start the video

American Flag

Click here to start the National Anthem: 


Comics Magazine, The

The Sunday Funnies:

We don't do cartoons much mostly because we don't know how. But we love to browse through YouTube looking for funny videos that relate to our special pages such as fishing, boat building, navigation , etc.. Its Sunday, time to relax and follow that ancient Sunday tradition kick back and watch our maritime "funnies". Click on the links below and then hit the back arrow on the YouTube tool bar to come back here for the next selection. .



Going to Extremes To Bring You Salmon:

Sharks as an aid in quitting Tobacco :


Funny Shark Pictures: 

We don't quite get it:  

CLASSIC FUNNIES: The next few videos received such appreciation and so many people have forwarded these that ,we have decided to retain them long term.

I gotta get me one of these! ( A Retained Classic!)


"When Its OK To Pee in Your Pants"  A Seaplane and Boat Encounter
A Sunday "Funnies Classic " held over by popular demand

RECENT FUNNIES: (Vote for future classics by sending in a comment, these recent videos are canidates for retention as "classics", tell us what you think

Prior Fishing Rights:

Jet Ski as prop in funny Old Spice Commercial:

The Retelling of the Evacuation of Mahattan Island 9/11/2001

Will  they be there for you? Not if John McCain has his way




These men and boats who John McCain has called "laughable" performed the largest mass evacuation of people from harm's way in history, more than at Dunkirk, and in hours, not days. These are the Americans Senator McCain finds laughable, whose more than 126,000 jobs he is willing to give over to foreigners, whose role in national emergencies he does not value at all. This is the American Fleet whose official motto is "Action, Not Words"

A New York City fireman calls for 10 more rescue workers to make their way into the rubble of the World Trade Center, Sept. 15, 2001. Photo by Photographer's Mate 1st Class Preston Keres, USN
The Morning of 9/11 Manhattan  rediscovered that it was  an it was an Island

We urge you, our readers to watch the videos linked to this page and meet the crewmen and boats of the hastily assembled, Coast Guard led armada that evacuated 500,000 people from Manhattan when the chips were down.

U.S.Department of Transportation: The Merchant Marine Response to 9/11- 5 min.

"BOAT LIFT" narrated by Tom Hanks 11 min.

 Weekend Station Identification and Test Pattern

Weekend Station Identification and Test Pattern September 29/30, 2012


File:Dock Street Annapolis.JPG

                                                               Looking Towards Dock Street From Ego Alley


READER ASSISTANCE STILL SOUGHT: Of all of our "special pages" none is longer or more technically problematic , than our "NEWS SERVICE". There is a lot of cut and paste going on there, more editorial chores than any other section, and the basic scrolling blog format is just plain inefficient for such a large amount of material that must be changed so frequently.   Right now we need your input. We are nearing the end of the month, it is time to cull headlines and links from our "THE MONTH IN REVIEW SECTION". The news editor has gone through this section and marked certain headlines and their links to the original published stories "long term retention". The stories so marked will be kept posted through at least next month's "MONTH IN REVIEW" because of what the news editor perceives as the likely hood that the stories are in fact on going and that more developments are likely, and that some of our readers may need these early reports for background material. Now we ask you the reader this weekend to take a look the "Month in Review" and send us a comment on any stories that we didn't mark for long term retention that you would like us to so mark and retain. We  started pulling down stories late Friday there is still time this weekend to make a difference. Please send us a comment this weekend on anything that we have not marked for long term retention that you think we should.

We started Saturday with a new post on supporting our position against the continued tenure in Congress of John McCain. At 1120 we posted a second post. Please read all.The National Anthem this morning was performed by:  The Cactus Cuties.  Click on the link below the flag to start the video

American Flag

Click here to start the National Anthem: 


More on the Jone's Act:   Senator McCain was also in favor of  the bill that we described in this post from this past spring.


The attacks on the Jones Act are sometimes piecemeal as in this example where a U.S. Congressman responding to a foreign lobby was ready to sacrifice American jobs, American Businesses, and American security in a relatively small sector of the Jones Act merchant fleet. Senator McCain participated in this attack. His present attack is more broad based calling the entire Jones Act fleet's security contribution to the United States "laughable" . In these posts and subsequent posts we will make our case for our disagreement and even alarm over his behavior. Please read all that we have to say before dismissing our call for his retirement. The fleet that Senator McCain and his anti Jones Act cohorts think exists is limited to a few American flag conventional tankers and / or cargo ships operating between ports like Baltimore and New Orleans. Their numbers are small and their contribution to commerce minuscule,and indeed it was this sort of shipping that the Jones Act was meant to save in the 1930s. But the American Merchant Marine industry's response to the Jones Act protections was not to build subsidized and protected but uncompetitive ships. Instead they built the modern day towboat and barge industry, the most fuel efficient and economic transcontinental transportation system yet developed by man. It may be slow compared to rail or highway transport but has no equal for non time sensitive cargoes and over sized items. No one foresaw the need for an offshore oil and mineral industry support fleet in the 1930s but the already in place Jones Act protections helped nurture a fleet of thousands of small specialized ships that not only service our offshore oil industry but service contracts all over the world creating and sustaining American jobs and helping in our balance of payments, they represent a rare export of American services. The Jones Act supports a vibrant mini cruise line, day excursion, and ferry boat system., In all there are at least 126,000 on board jobs at stake every time Senator McCain and his cohorts attack the Jones Act. The related Jobs ashore probably exceed the crew jobs.The security contribution and potential of these vessels is enormous as we are trying to demonstrate. The NMA sent a representative to the Senator's office at least four times in the spring and summer of 2012 he was never seen  by the Senator. We urge our readers who are U.S. voters to not do what the senator did and turn a blind eye to the facts.

Another Attack on the "Jones Act", Calling A Stinkweed a Rose

 "Creating and Restoring U.S. Investment and Stimulating Employment Act" of 2012, 112th Congress, House Resolution 2460. Who could argue with what appears to be the objectives of this bill if one were to judge by its title? Titles are deceptive especially coming out of an organization like our Congress which knows no limits on duplicity. What representative would like to face reelection with a record of having voted against a bill by this title? However calling a stinkweed a rose doesn't make the smelly ugly weed a rose. H.R. 2460 by any name is simply another and deadly attack on the "Jones Act" Cabotage law (see our admiralty law section for a description of "Cabotage law") protections that keep the extensive water borne trade between the American States in the capable, safe, and loyal hands of the United States Merchant Marine (see our Merchant Marine Interest section for the legal definition of the "United States Merchant Marine").

 This bill was introduced by Rep. Blake Farenthold, R-Texas and constitutes a wholly unacceptable attack on the protection of our coast wise and internal maritime trades. This act would exempt foreign-flag cruise ships from the requirements of the Passenger Vessel Services Act (PVSA) and allow them to call on consecutive U.S. ports. An example of some of the worst effects of such a bill may be seen by examining the current state of "Fall Foliage Cruises." Presently small cruise ships under 1600 gross tons and operated by American crews under the American Flag pick up passengers in the Fall as far south as Baltimore and proceed north bound stopping at various scenic small ports on our East Coast attempting to terminate in New England or adjacent parts of Canada in time for the peak fall colors. Because of the series of American port calls this trade is restricted to American flag vessels especially later in the season when the trips more often terminate in New England. Under H.R. 2460 any cruise ship clearing customs ultimately for Canada may call at U.S. ports in between embarking passengers for the next segment of the tour.

 These foreign flag ships don't have to meet U.S. Coast Guard safety standards, don't have to be built in the United States, are not manned by U.S. citizens. It is doubtful that what is left of our shrunken overnight passenger trade can be sustained in the face of such competition.

 Overnight cruise ships are sometimes built with federal subsidizes because of their potential naval utility as hospital ships and barracks boats. Remember that during Hurricane Katrina the U.S. had to charter idle foreign cruise ships to house emergency and recovery workers in New Orleans. Our own overnight passenger trade has shrunk due to such foreign competition.  However, a useful remnant still exists in the under 1600 gross registered tons sized vessels running such programs as fall Foliage tours on the East Coast, and occasional attempts to run full size ships in inter-island tours of the Hawaiian Islands. Only the smaller vessels compete in the West Coast to Alaska inside passage tours. Because of the ability of foreign flag cruise ships to clear their first U.S. port for Canada before calling at an Alaskan port, foreign operators dominate on our own portion of the Inside Passage. We have a very few larger craft designed exclusively for the Rivers Trade operating on our interior waters. This entire inventory of passenger vessels is legally available to the government for emergencies where floating assets with beds and bathrooms are needed. This need may not be in some overseas theater of war as was illustrated by Hurricane Katrina. Yet in Katrina our government rightly decided not to call on our shrunken overnight passenger operators to provide for the bunk needs in Katrina ravaged New Orleans. This may have been because the industry is so weak and September is an important time in this largely seasonal industry. Given those facts providing government service at New Orleans, while a clear demonstration of the security utility of these sometimes Maritime Administration subsidized vessels, may have outright killed the domestic industry.

 During the second Iraq war we also saw our government chartering foreign flag cruise ships as floating rest and recreation centers for our troops who were stuck indefinitely in a theater of operations surrounded by nations where some American ideas of good clean fun, or simply religious practice, or dietary preferences are punishable by death, imprisonment or dismemberment. At the time of this event our only active American full size cruise ships were struggling to survive in the Hawaiian inter-island trade. So again we resorted to chartering foreign flag vessels.  There is a defense utility to these types of ships and we have a legal right to use those of our "naval auxiliary" the "U.S. Merchant Marine." But we periodically cut off or reduce construction subsidies for American ships. The looser safety rules and low labor costs of foreign ships have run our trade from the high seas. Our remaining capacity for back up hospital ships, floating troop rests, and barracks barges is a very few mostly small ships. However as long as there is an American flag overnight cruise industry we do have some floating bunks we absolutely can press into service.

Does it make sense to endanger this remnant industry, unemploy these American seamen, and commit to depending on foreign sources for both our domestic (think Katrina) and foreign floating berth needs. Clearly this law maker Rep. Blake Farenhold (R-Texashas lost sight of the purpose of a "naval auxiliary" and the defense security, disaster recovery utility of typical "naval auxiliary vessels."  Think about it. Even at its most subsidized level, and few are subsidized today, we get on call naval availability on these infrequently used but occasionally critical vessels for a tiny fraction of their costs. Our defense budget eliminates entirely the crewing costs and upkeep and maintenance costs until actually needed. H.R. 2460 not only destroys American jobs despite its deceptive title but destroys an important naval auxiliary feature of our Merchant Marine which has retreated to the heart of our Merchant Marine, the protected domestic trades. In these supposedly protected domestic trades resides our only hope of resurrection of true transocean sea lift capacity when naval necessity calls for it. We have no assurance that the foreign flagged merchant marines of the world will go into harm's way to carry bullets and beans to our troops when the shooting starts. The U.S. Merchant Marine has never failed us. American merchant mariners suffered one of the heaviest casualty rates in World War II, especially in the early days of the Allied sea lift to England which coincided with the German U-boats "Happy Time." American Merchant mariners and merchant ships penetrated miles up the Vietnamese rivers carrying beans and bullets to our soldiers throughout the Vietnam war. Irresponsible and ill informed acts like H.R. 2460 by Congressmen like Rep. Farenhold not only kill American jobs and ships, but kill or greatly reduce already reduced naval auxiliary capacities and capabilities.

Voters of Texas stop the madness! Call, E-mail, and write, visit if you can, this misinformed representative. Voters everywhere instruct your representatives to stop this bill. This isn't a party matter, it shouldn't be a political matter. Protecting our cabotage trade should be a fixed feature of our defense and homeland security policy supported by both parties and a constant between White House occupants. Read the American Admiralty Books recommended history "The Way of the Ship" (see our "merchant marine Interests section) for a better understanding of the security importance and economic importance of our supposedly protected but constantly threatened domestic water borne trades. Every voter should know something about the defense and security utility of America's domestic trades U.S. Merchant Marine, as well as the naval utility of our seriously depressed traditional merchant deep sea transports. The provided hyperlink will bring you to a copy of the bill.


 More on why we called for the resignation of Senator John McCain. His understanding of the Jones Act Fleets is based on 1930s facts. This is dangerous.

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Tug and two tank barges entering locks separating two deep inland waterways

Two days ago, with great reluctance we urged Senator John McCain to retire from the U.S.Senate. Since we doubt that he will do, that we also asked the people of Arizona to recall him as a hazard to our maritime security and our economic health. His offense(s)? Senator McCain has repeatedly attacked the "Jones Act".  The day before we called for his removal from office he called the national security contribution of the Jones Act fleet as "laughable". Like many of the critics of the Jones Act Senator McCain's image of the fleet that evolved out this set of legislation is stuck somewhere in the 1930s. This reprint of an earlier report will give you a good over view of the modern contributions to our economy by the various industries that are protected by and evolved under the influence of the Jones Act". We are well aware that Senator McCain served his country well in uniform and endured much as a POW and for that we thank him. We value that he is an owner of an honorable military discharge and that experience is rarer than hens teeth in this Congress and something to be valued. But we are also students of history. We know what kind of condition China was in on the eve of the Boxer Rebellion . The Chinese of the time had ignored their cabotage (coast wise and inland maritime trades) and the result was that at first foreign merchant vessels filled the need. They were followed by foreign naval forces and overt foreign rule. If we were to actually follow Senator McCain's lead on the only protection our own cabotage has , the various laws that are referred to as "the Jones Act" we would experience exactly what China suffered through on the eve of the Boxer Rebellion. Over time we will try to provide you with enough information to under stand our outright alarm over the attitude of senator McCain.  The report below will give you a sound picture of some of the contributions of some of the segments of the Jones Act Fleets.

Report No. 1 (completed 3/09/2012)

The "Jones Act" is a term of legal art that is a generic expression for an entire series of statutes that regulate the maritime trade between the states of the United States and certain marine transportation activities on waters under U.S. jurisdiction. "Jones" simply perpetrates the name of the sponsor of section 27 of the Merchant Marine Act of 1920 (P.L. 66-261) which dealt directly with "cabotage" trade between and among U.S. Ports (Cabotage: Fr. origin "between the Capes" or "Coastwise). Generally the effect of the various combinations of statutes is that cargo and passengers carried between the states, within a state, or to and from our offshore Exclusive Economic Zone (EEC) which is generally coincidental with our Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), are to be carried on vessels built in America and crewed by American citizens or permanent residents. The real purpose of Cabotage law is national security. Any nation that allows foreign shipping to carry its cabotage trade is doomed to serious loss of sovereignty. Perhaps the worse case example is China on the eve of the Boxer Rebellion.

We (American Admiralty Books) make no bones about being in favor of serious cabotage protection. We understand what the critics of the Act say about the increased costs of domestic waterborne transportation when you ship American. But those who are critical do not count the costs of increased security requirements were we to allow wide spread use of foreign flag vessels and crews in our domestic trades. If you would like to see and feel the results of what a lack of cabotage enforcement can do to a nation we won't ask you to read some lengthy and dry economic tome. Just rent the video of the old Steve McQueen movie The Sand Pebbles. Take a good look at the misery of the Chinese people so ably depicted there and how the American and British sailors in their domestic ports, some of which were as much as 900 miles inland on their river systems acted as lords of the manor. 

The Chinese started by letting foreign flag merchant ships mostly British and American carry their domestic trade between their own ports. A few instances of river piracy and other crimes against shipping later and these same nations claimed and exercised the right to "protect their merchant marines" and so sent in their navy gun boats. Soon China was controlled like a virtual vassal by foreign shipping interests.

 In the united States we need approximately 77 strategic materials to support our economy. Of these 66 have to be imported by sea. When international shipping became too competitive with U.S. flag international shipping due to low labor coast after World War II we basically gave up after a brief period when we had the wisdom to subsidize our international carriers, our traditional, "merchant marine." Then we threw in the towel and let our post WW II fleet of nearly 5, 000 traditional merchant ships shrink down to about 200 today. Then came the events of 9/11 and we are spending far more on port security and maritime intelligence to police this foreign armada that carries goods to and from America. But thanks to "Jones Act" prohibitions the coal and grain of the Midwest still travels down the Mississippi on American barges pushed by American towboats, under the skillful hands of American pilots. Heating oil and gasoline refined in New Orleans and Baton Rouge moves up the Mississippi to the Midwestern distribution points by American tow boat and tank barge combinations. Refined oil products still move by sea between Houston and New Orleans to Baltimore by American flag coastwise tankers and tank barges. Our offshore oil industry is mostly still serviced by American supply vessels though this is under daily attack and inroads against the Jones Act protections are being made.

 We still operate our own ferries and tugs. The fact is that America has always, since colonial times carried more commerce between the states by water than it ships and receives internationally by water.  Our "Blue Water" or internationally trading merchant ship fleet has always waxed and waned in size based on international competition but when push came to shove and we had to sea lift entire armies into hostile zones only American merchant seamen on American ships our "Merchant Marine," by law a naval auxiliary, answered the call for war zone transport. How did we go from a tiny pre war international merchant marine to the massive sealift fleets of the World Wars and the rather expanded fleets of Korea and Vietnam almost over night given the the greatly reduced ship building capacity of the United States in those time frames and the time it takes to train skilled seamen at all levels? 

The answer is that we have always had plenty of reserve ship building and manning capacity in our Jones Act fleets and yards. Our "cabotage" trades are not the after thought and rear guard of the American Merchant Marine that most politicians who don't know port from starboard or bow from stern think. The Jones Act fleets and yards are the deep protected and vital HEART OF THE AMERICAN MERCHANT MARINE it has been from that heart, that core capacity that our Merchant Marine has always risen up to the combat support challenge. It is because of the conduct of our extensive cabotage trades by American flag vessels manned by American Merchant Mariners that our interior waters beyond the international docks require relatively little security attention.

Unfortunately, as previously reported here in these pages the Jones Act Fleets and yards are under constant attack and in danger of dying a death of a thousand shallow cuts. There are congressmen who daily try to protect our cabotage legal system, and Congressmen hell bent on destroying it, some in a mistaken devotion to "fair trade and openness, and lower costs of shipping" who simply don't see or understand the national security implications. Other Congressmen are attacking the Jones Act protections in direct response to the lobby efforts of well heeled foreign interests.

 Whether from treason or tragic ignorance the protections are eroding. One of the chief sources of erosion is an institutional attitude in the Coast Guard, Customs and Border protection service, and even the Department of Homeland Security and its Inspector General's office that Jones Act enforcement is a "labor issue." Yes, American merchant mariner and ship building jobs are protected by the Jones act, indeed in addition to national security, or more correctly because of it, that protection is one of the stated purposes of the Act. How and why the agencies and department charged with enforcement of these laws came to engage in selective enforcement and ease of exception making, so pleasing to foreign ship owners and American owners of foreign registered shipping, is lost to us. We only know that the pleadings of such maritime labor organizations as the National Mariner's Association (NMA) for real Jones Act enforcement in particular instances have literally been turned away at the agency and department level with the retort "that's a labor issue we can't get involved".

 Well the protection of American seamen's jobs and American yards and vessels were in part the actual object of the law. Who is an agency official to deny protection to the protected class in a statute? Treason or tragically flawed reasoning the results have been the same slowly eroding cabotage protections. It the worst happens and the proponents of "free trade" get their way, a United States that resembles pre- Boxer rebellion China is the inevitable result. Thus we stand with the American seaman on this issue and don't apologize for it.

 Since we view the Jones Act fleets and yards as vital to national security and economic prosperity we have always tracked the health of these industries through monthly review of the relevant trade journals. Today we launch our first report on the economic health of the Jones Act fleets and yards. We hope to make this a regular monthly feature but if things are very slow changing between monthly reviews we may drop back to quarterly periodically. We sincerely urge all of our readers even if you are a recreational boater or diver to follow this news which is never reported in the national general media. If you visit our "Merchant Marine Interest section you will notice that our first, and first "Recommended" selection is The Way of the Ship, a historical perspective on our domestic fleets as the heart of our Merchant Marine and commercial sea power potential. We won't be pulling that title from its pole position for years. Its truth endures.

The good news is that after a slump that reflected the slump in the general economy the Jones Act fleets and yards seem to be emerging into something of a visible growth pattern We are not seeing a rapid return to the glory days of the 1970s but we are seeing a decided up tick from the depressed days of the last several years. WORKBOAT MAGAZINE reported in its March issue Work Boat Construction Survey that 564 commercial work vessels are under construction in our "second tier yards" an increase of 30 hulls from the same time last year. Apparently order books and back logs are growing and editor David Krapf reports that the second tier yard personnel that he visited appeared "bullish on the shipyard business."

 The offshore supply vessel (OSV) industry contracts on "day rates" the cost per day to charter (contract) an OSV for service in logistic support of an offshore rig. OSV day rates were down in January, the last month for which there is strong data but utilization rates (the percentage of the OSV fleet under active paying charter) appear to be holding near steady in some sectors or rising by about 1% in others. The prognosis is that rising, even slowly rising utility rates lead to improved day rates and that leads to improved profitability for the vessel owners and operators. For large supply vessel s, those over 200 feet in length, the day rate has already risen while the day rate for smaller supply vessels is down slightly with a utilization rate of only 69% of the fleet at last report. Gulf Coastal drilling activity is on the rise so the outlook of the domestic OSV industry is guardedly optimistic.

 There are reports of new building and vessel commissioning in the day excursion vessel passenger trade. One new overnight vessel for river service has been launched, the first good news since security concerns in the wake of 9/11 idled the Delta Queen fleet of overnight passenger vessels.  Inland and coastal day passenger operating firms are predicting a good year as we approach their peak season. WORKBOAT MAGAZINE's"WorkBoat Composite Index"  which tracks a variety of publicly traded stocks of vessel operating, ship building, and service businesses opened 2012 with a big gain of 182 points after losing 240 points in 2011 or 16%. The WorkBoat Composite index shows a strong start for 2012 though it comes after a losing year. The outlook is best described as guardedly optimistic for the coming year. The U.S. towboat and barge industry has lost ground in the coal carriage trade as U.S. exports have dropped and domestic demand slackened in response to environmental laws. 

Heating oil carriage this winter was off due to mild weather, but grain carriage is expected to take up considerable slack and the inland towing industry appears to  have started the first quarter of fiscal 2012 as the rest of the Jones Act fleet and yards in a guardedly optimistic cultural mindset. Check with us next months to see how that mind set holds up at the start of the second quarter.

Friday, September 28, 2012

Station Identification and Test Pattern Friday Sept. 28, 2012 (3)


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                                                              Looking Towards Dock Street From Ego Alley


The News Service is on line and fully functional this morning.

The first blog posting of the day address our observations and opinions about the navigability and port development of Annapolis. 

We had delayed the discussion of Annapolis maritime development in order to make our initial pleas for the removal of senator John McCain from office before he does any more damage to our domestic commercial fleets and maritime security. We are not through yet with our discussion of the economic and national security importance of the Jones act fleets. When one listens to statements by politicians like the senator for Arizona it seems like they have a vision of a fleet that existed around 1939, not the fleets of today. There is a great deal at stake in any debate over the Jones Act. Too much to allow us to cut the Senator any slack for being a former POW, a naval veteran, or even based on our admitted usual preference for Republican office holders. To professional mariners, he won't protect the cabotage trades must go. If you want to see what happens to nations who fail to protect their cabotage trades study China on the eve of the Boxer rebellion. We will have a great deal more to say on thi sin the coming days. 



Captain James J. Kelleher '77 gave two separate presentationsone to faculty and staff and the other to the Regiment of Midshipmenrecounting his dramatic rescue in early February. Capt. Kelleher, Master of the Horizon Lines containershipHorizon Reliance, maneuvered his vessel in extremely adverse conditions to save the lives of three sailboat passengers who were adrift in a Pacific storm about 400 miles from Honolulu, Hawaii. Click on the link below for a video on the presentations: 


The 2012 Ice Operations Planning Meeting will be held at the Calhoon
Marine Engineers Beneficial Association Engineering School, Easton
Maryland on Wednesday, November 28, 2012, 10 am-1 pm. To submit a
proposed topic, please contact Mr. Ron Houck, Sector Baltimore Waterways
Management Division, at (410) 576-2674 or To
ensure your proposed topic is addresses, please make your submission
prior to Friday, November 16, 2012. Meeting registration is being
accepted by fax, phone, e-mail or mail before Monday, November 26, 2012,
and should be addressed to Mr. Ron Houck. Additional information can be
found in the supporting documentation titled," Ice Meeting Invitation
2012."  You can also use the following link to RSVP.

.The National Anthem this morning is performed by: The Mormon Tabernacle Choir

Click on the link below the flag to start the video

Click here to start the National Anthem:

9/28/2012 Post


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U.S.Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland around 1855

 In the view of Annapolis above, you are looking at the then newly founded U.S. Naval Academy as seen from somewhere near the mouth of the Severn River, to the left is Spa Creek. Annapolis was already fading as a real commercial sea port at this point in history. On the opposite side of Spa Creek to the left and behind this view point on the north shore of Spa Creek a commercial fishing village was already forming. That commercial fishing port would become the community known as Eastport, more recently "the Independent Maritime Republic Of Eastport.  Eventually a bridge would span Spa Creek and unite Eastport and Annapolis. 

 Commercial fishing boat traffic would eventually fill into what would become the City Dock or "Ego Alley" canal. A thriving seafood market would evolve at the foot of the turning basin of the City Dock canal or slip. That property still stands but has struggled to survive the yacht dominant era. It is empty as we write this. Eastport itself gradually faded as a commercial fishing port as fish and crab stocks declined and yacht traffic increased. Politically, after the bridge, Eastport and Annapolis were politically united, until one day that critical bridge needed repair. 

 The city closed the bridge off apparently without what the "Eastporters" considered adequate notice. This was towards the end of the twentieth century and by then the fishing boat yards had morphed into yacht repair yards and the many of the old commercial fishing families and moved out and been replaced by what appeared to be your basic yuppies. But the Eastporters of all stripes made a move that indicated the apparent "yuppification" of Eastport was at best only skin deep. The Eastporters found an old wheeled canon, dragged it down to the now closed foot of the bridge and fired off a blank round, then read their declaration of independence from Annapolis, and raised for the first time the new flag of the "Independent Maritime Republic of Eastport.

The Flag of the Independent Maritime republic of East Port Click on the link below for the full story of the Eastport Revolution and the Bombardment of Annapolis

 Once the Bridge repairs were completed the integration of the Eastport and "Annapolis proper" economies resumed. Eastport became the site of the "Maritime Museum" where the era of commercial fishing is commemorated. "Annapolis proper" is the home of the "Sailing Museum". Today both Spa Creek and Ego alley are filled with yachts and lined with Marinas, yacht clubs, yacht repair yards, sailing schools, boat building schools, waterfront hotels, bars and restaurants. Closer to the junction of the Severn River and Chesapeake Bay Back Creek which runs parallel with spa Creek defining the Republic of Eastport was also a commercial fishing haven, but now is filled with yachts and lined with waterfront condos. The streets of Annapolis proper have a very maritime character but not one familiar to the old watermen of the Chesapeake. Gone are the yellow slickers, the boon dockers, and overalls, and watch caps of the commercial seamen. In their place we find the crisp whites and blues of the Naval Academy midshipmen and the deck shoe and Land's End clad yachtsmen. The atmosphere is definitely nautical and draws lots of tourists, but the roots of this very maritime place are buried in museums. opportunities have been lost.

 Yet Annapolis, unlike that other state capital, Montgomery avoided a navigational vacuum but not by plan, by unguided evolution.  Unlike Montgomery, Alabama with its dependence on three locks that could fall under a budget ax; Annapolis has no dramatic end state for its navigational economy in sight. But when navigability is not consciously tended it can and does end. Communities blessed with proximity to navigable waters must nurture the full spectrum of navigation related industries. Its not unlikely that different places will have different navigational industries as dominant at different times as the history of Annapolis indicates. But the total disappearance of commercial navigational activity indicates neglect on the part of local government over time. Cities like Annapolis and Montgomery which began existence because of their suitability as a port then go on to become state capitals, and university locations sometimes fail to continue to nurture navigational development as their economies diversify. As port cities mature, port activities must diversify along with the rest of the city. One trick ponies are unemployed when they lose the market for their one trick.

 In the case of Annapolis the increase in the size of seagoing ships to a point too large to use the natural harbor of Annapolis happened when Baltimore was more naturally suited for such ships and governments weren't inclined to fund massive dredging projects. But Annapolis was never that far from natural deep navigable water. ships may be seen in "Annapolis Anchorage" from parts of the city dock today. That wasn't always the case, the growth of Annapolis Anchorage had to await the growth of the port of Baltimore to the point where relatively distant anchorages and marshaling areas were needed. If the long ago city fathers of Annapolis had the foresight to lobby to maintain the status of Annapolis as a full service port of entry with the Customs Service, the development of the present large ship anchorage by Baltimore would have required the cooperation of Annapolis.

 A very small dredging project could have linked the Annapolis anchorage to parts of the north shore of the Severn in the vicinity of the Naval Support Center for at least one ship berth. Even if that berth was only used as a "lay berth' (berths for on board minor repairs) it would have enhanced the claim of Annapolis on a share of the revenues from "Annapolis Anchorage". The Annapolis yacht yards employ many of the craftsmen who typically preform lay berth type minor repairs. But Annapolis lacks a commercial launch service to the Anchorage. The reservation of a small part of Spa Creeks berths for small commercial launches, tugs, and deck barges at non yacht prices would have fostered this type of economic activity. But why would a city want to forego the revenues from a few high priced yacht slips in favor of a few gritty commercial boats and berths? There is only one economic reason, these vessels coupled with a coordinated effort with local boat yards interested in lay berth type repairs generate far more jobs that the few dozen boat slips given up. These are skilled wage jobs, increasing the number of consumers and tax payers in the community.
We could go on, but our purpose is not to create a how to manual for port management, or a recovery plan for former port cities. Our point is that navigability has to be carefully monitored, encouraged , and maintained by local governments or it can be lost. If the reader will go back a couple of weeks to our observations about Montgomery we described the many types of marine activity that a diversified and deliberate waterways development program can generate. To Montgomery we urged a an immediate intense development program because underdevelopment could lead to cancellation of funding of three key locks that connect Montgomery to the sea 100 miles away. Annapolis remains a maritime city but by default, having survived two prior revolutions in marine activity. The city is only vulnerable due to over reliance on yachting and no deliberate development or encouragement of the commercial maritime sector except for excursion boats and charter yachts. It is never too early to protect or start to redevelop a port or waterway. Until the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers finally declares a water body "non navigable" it is never too late to try to revitalize an inactive port or waterway. We refer you to our earlier blogs on Montgomery for all of the benefits that can be had by proper, diversified ,maritime development.

 So until we again address an Annapolis issue or event, Annapolitans enjoy your special place in the nautical sun, and long live the Independent Maritime Republic of Eastport!

Daiwa D-Shock 170 Yards 8 Line 6 1/2-Feet Fibreglass Spin Combo (Medium)

Thursday, September 27, 2012

Station Identification and Test Pattern 9/27/2012 (2)


File:Dock Street Annapolis.JPG
                                                              Looking Towards Dock Street From Ego Alley


The NEWS SERVICE section is back up to full service.The news story that drew the most attention here was the account in the MM&P's WHEELHOUSE about another attack on the Jones Act by Senator John McCain. We set aside our discussion of the navigability of Annapolis temporarily to link you to the story of this latest attack on the law that protects America's maritime infrastructure and domestic water transport security. In the blog space we also try to illustrate for you the type of public safety issue this legislative attack represents. Below we repeat our news flash from yesterday and in the blog spaces below we explain our position.


An approaching tropical storm could - at least temporarily - help easing tensions around the Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands and provide a new opportunity for diplomacy. (AAIS Sources)

News Alert: (Yesterday) Greek and Turkish Coast Guard vessels collide. Some sources maintain accident happened in Greek territorial waters. Greek government has protested to Turkey that their vessel was illegally present.

READER ASSISTANCE SOUGHT: Of all of our "special pages" none is longer or more technically problematic , or sloppier looking than our "NEWS SERVICE". There is a lot of cut and paste going on there, more editorial chores than any other section, and the basic scrolling blog format is just plain inefficient for such a large amount of material that must be changed so frequently. Still, while not a news gathering and reporting service per se we are committed to improving our news service. Right now we need your input. We are nearing the end of the month, it is time to cull headlines and links from our "THE MONTH IN REVIEW SECTION. The news editor has gone through this section and marked certain headlines and their links to the original published stories "long term retention"). The stories so marked will be kept posted through at least next month's "Month in Review" because of what the news editor perceives as the likely hood that the stories are in fact on going and that more developments are likely, and that some of our readers may need these early reports for background material. Now we ask you the reader to take a look the "Month in Review" and send us a comment on any stories that we didn't mark for long term retention that you like us to so mark and retain. We will start pulling down stories late Friday. Please send us a comment before then on anything that we have not marked for long term retention that you think we should.

The National Anthem this morning was performed by: The New York Philharmonic Orchestral Click on the link below the flag to start the video

Click here to start the National Anthem:



Editor's note 2/15/2015 We first ran this report a couple of years ago. We are pleased to report that there has been no repeat as lessons learned have been applied by the American pilot corps serving Jones Act shipping. We repeat the report because Senator John McCain is again sponsoring legislation that would eliminate the Jones Act. Does anyone think our domestic waters will be safer under Mexican Merchant Marine Officers? Retire McCain.

This accident which we reported on last winter is an example of a Jones Act voyage that Senator McCaine would entrust to foreigners. Our own American crew made a big mistake here and we blame it in part on a loop hole in the Jones Act fleet regulations. The National Mariners Association has asked Congress to address the needed changes. When Mexicans are piloting these operations who will be lobbying Congress to improve safety regulations. American pilots aren't perfect but will foreigners on our waters be better? And how will we employ the tens of thousands of Americans put out of work by Senator McCain's proposal? Click on the blue link below for photos and story of a ship movement gone wrong Kentucky.

Photo of Rocket Carrier DELTA MARINER and Coast Guard Response Boat after the DELTA MARINER hit a Kentucky bridge. Photo is from the linked account by the Huffington Post

Eggner Ferry Bridge Hit By Delta Mariner Ship In Kentucky (PHOTOS)
 The hyperlink associated with this blog posting will take you to a full Internet account of today's "bridge allision" in Kentucky where a "ship" hit a bridge and took out the main span. The "ship" DELTA MARINER is an actual ship in the sense of the word of having real ocean transport capability and indeed entered the river navigation system from sea. Most non-maritime professionals, at best are aware of towboat and barge traffic on our inland rivers, but few people expect to see ocean going ships operating on Kentucky waters. So we thought that we'd take this opportunity to explain a few unique aspects of our inland merchant marine, and introduce our readers to some unique nautical vocabulary, especially if you are a non-maritime professional visitor to our humble site.

 The DELTA MARINER is a "ship" of about 8,000 plus "gross registered tons." By contrast, typical bulk carriers or container ships calling at New Orleans from sea and unable to navigate higher up the Mississippi than Baton Rouge would be of about 50,000, to in excess of 100,000 "Gross registered tons." This should give you some idea of the relative size of the of the DELTA MARINER. She is a sort of "mini ship" designed to carry special cargoes on the sea or the inland waterways including the major river systems of the United States. She isn't much bigger than what rivermen would call a "jumbo barge." But the DELTA MARINER and other mini type ships are economic to operate for certain types of highly specialized cargos. The DELTA MARINER carries rocket parts from inland manufacturing sites in places like Alabama to places in Florida and California where the parts are assembled into rockets used to launch satellites. So, not only is there towboat and barge "shipping" on our larger river systems but there is seagoing commerce as well with no need for trans-loading to seagoing ships at tidewater.

 When considering size comparisons you need to know something about the maritime legal art known as "Admeasurement." When maritime professionals speak of a vessel in terms of"registered tonnage" they are not describing the vessel in terms of units of weight. Registered tonnage is a unit of volume. Today a "gross registered ton" is 100 cubic feet of enclosed space. By contrast a vessel's "registered net tonnage" is also expressed in terms of 100 cubic feet of enclosed space but excludes certain spaces that don't have any capacity for generating revenue such as the pilot house and engine room and certain voids that can't be used for cargo. Why "tons" as a unit of volume? Our Customs laws actually started evolving during Roman times. In those days the highest value cargo that a ship could carry in any real quantity was wine. The wine was carried in large earthen jars called "Tuns." Over time cargos changed and carrying capacity estimation changed and the English speaking countries that dominated world maritime trade settled on 100 cubic feet of enclosed space as the "Tun" of the day; but the word had long since degenerated in usage to "Ton." So at least in Customs law a "Ton" can be a unit of volume, though it can be a unit of weight as well.

Part of the problem of estimating accurately how much over head clearance a ship needs to clear an overhead obstruction like a bridge span or power line is called "Estimating air draft." We doubt that the DELTA MARINER could have hit a bridge if she hadn't miscalculated her air draft or needed overhead clearance during her voyage planning stage. If the master or pilot had known that it was even going to be close, the ship would not have proceeded through the span without pause to recalculate.

Here is a problem for mini ships. Because they do go to sea they are usually commanded by Ocean Masters, professional mariners who have been examined by the Coast Guard for blue water navigational skills. The same master who may have miscalculated his air draft on the DELTA MARINER would probably be highly unlikely to do that in a coastal port. To calculate air draft on a bridge that is charted under NOAA's charting system the voyage planner/navigator need only determine his own ship's air draft from the ship's plans which should show her height from the keel to her highest protuberance. Subtract the draft of the ship (her depth in the water caused by her load of fuel and cargo) from the ship's maximum height and you have "own ship's air draft." Now the navigator looks at the height of the bridge in the span to be navigated from the chart with perhaps a cross check of a publication like the "Coast Pilot." All he or she has to do then is compute the height of the tide at the expected time of arrival at the bridge and subtract from the bridge height which is published at "mean low water" the effect of the tide at the moment of arrival. ( Of course at extreme low water the effect would be added to the available clearance under the bridge span.)

 By contrast computing clearance and air draft on the American rivers is fraught with complications. There is no tide, one has to contend with "river stages" these aren't as easy to predict as tides and the range of a river stage change in feet, can be double digit over night at times. While the second deck officer on a river vessel is often called the "Pilot" the Coast Guard stopped offering traditional pilot examinations for the inland waters beyond the normal limits of navigation for typical deep sea ships years ago. So it is entirely up to any officer allowed to cruise the inland waterways to learn the unique skills of the inland services on his own if rivers are considered "lesser included waters" on his or her license. The shift that occurs on the rivers from the standard NOAA charts to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers "Flood Control and Navigation Maps" can present problems for the deep sea officer who lacks supervised experience on the rivers. With the river "maps" vice traditional navigation charts depths are not generally shown. In lieu of depths at mean low water the navigational project depth (usually 9 to 12 feet is shown and a red dashed line indicates the approximate location. The right of way for collision avoidance purposes is different on the rivers than in coastal waters. There was a reason why river navigators were and are called "pilots" but in terms of drawing the river in detail from memory, or being held to specific posting trips where the true "River Pilot" had to see his section of the river "in daylight and dark, on a high river, a low river and on a rising and a falling river" before being admitted to the formal test are gone. The charting or "mapping" of the great American Rivers has improved greatly over the years since Mark Twain, and the rivers themselves have been physically improved for navigation but they are still a very different experience from coastal navigation. Small ships that navigate from sea to Kentucky require a unique skill set that is not always understood by management, the usual sources of Captains and mates, or the Coast Guard.

The related hyperlink will take you to a news story complete with color photographs of the accident site and Allision

2/23/2015 Editor's Note: Sen. John McCain is back at again this Congressional session attempting  to repeal the Jones Act. If he succeeds the entire U.S. Merchant Marine will eventually be wiped  out beyond recall. The national security benefits of the Jones Act fleet are far from "laughable" as McCain claims. As serving merchant mariners McCain is to us what Jane Fonda was to naval       aviators in Vietnam. 


Maritime Security

This type of transport moves millions of tons of critical cargo between and among the States of the United States. These vessels by law (The "Jones Act" must be manned by officers licensed by the U.S. Coast Guard who are citizens of the United States. This type of traffic passes under many critical bridges in the United States. Will you really feel safer during your next bridge crossing if you know that the Jones Act has been repealed and the tug and barge approaching your bridge is operated by a Mexican or Liberian crew?  

It is very pain full for us to have to say this but.........


We beseech the people of Arizona to recall him before he does any more damage to our maritime security

 This is very painful for us. We have described our organization as "moderately
conservative", and many of us are registered Republicans.  We particularly can't 
understand how a U.S.Naval Academy graduate could exhibit such a pitiful 
understanding of sea power.Below is the latest news quoted directly from the 
International Association of Masters Mates and Pilots newsletter THE WHEELHOUSE: 


Arizona Republican Sen. John McCain has taken yet another swipe at the Jones 
Act, the law that requires that shipments from one U.S. port to another be 
carried on vessels owned by American citizens and operated by American mariners.

The Jones Act is critical to the jobs of many MM&P members. It boosts our 
nation’s economy by keeping thousands of maritime jobs in the United States. It 
contributes to national security by making a fleet available for our military. 
Approximately 50 percent of the trained merchant mariners available for sealift 
in the event of a national emergency are employed in the Jones Act trades.

But McCain has made repealing the Jones Act a central focus of his career. Last 
March, he tried to attach language repealing the Jones Act to an energy bill.  
His most recent attack on the law came in an article entitled “Oil and the Ghost 
of 1920,” that was posted to the Wall Street Journal Blog on Sept. 13. It is 
“ludicrous” to assert that the Jones Act contributes to national security, 
McCain was quoted as saying. “These arguments are laughable,” he added.

The MM&P International President called McCain’s statements “dangerous to the 
wellbeing of our country,” and “an insult to the American mariners who have been 
an indispensable component of our nation’s defense in every conflict since World 
War II.”

“Repealing the Jones Act and allowing unrestricted operation of foreign vessels 
and crews along our coasts would put the United States at great risk,” he added. 
“We urge McCain and others fighting to repeal the Jones Act to focus on sound 
policy rather than sound bites. America must maintain U.S.-flag commercial 
sealift capability and the Jones Act helps guarantee our ability to do so.

Here is something else we can't understand. Previous Senators and Congressmen from Arizona of both parties have been just as troublesome in the past in this regard. Is it some kind of requirement for Representatives and Senators from Arizona to be anti domestic water transport, just because Arizona is one of a very few states that don't directly benefit?  The Jones Act fleet that Senator McCain can't see any security value in includes the towboat and barge industry that moves America's grain to tide water and moves the heating oil and gasoline used in the Midwest up river by tank barge from Texas and Louisiana refineries at a fraction of the cost per mile of tank truck or tank rail car and highly competitive and sometimes cheaper than even pipelines where available. This same towboat and barge industry has been used in the past to move tanks, artillery pieces, and heavy military equipment to New Orleans for trans-shipment to ocean transport. Come on Senator McCain, tell us again how using foreigners for this service improves our economy, or our security. We just don't get it. 

Wednesday, September 26, 2012

Station ID and Test Pattern Wednesday September 26, 2012 (2)


File:Dock Street Annapolis.JPG
                                                              Looking Towards Dock Street From Ego Alley


The maritime news through the early evening hours of yesterday seemed slow. Watch this space for updates through the day. The NEWS SERVICE SECTION still has technical difficulties but is functional. Look for the NEWS SERVICE to  the right, on the list of special pages.

Today we have blog post number 2 exploring Annapolis and its navigable history and potential.


The National Anthem this morning was performed by: Branford Marsalis. Click on the link below the flag to start the video


Part 2              

File:Dock Street Annapolis.JPG
 There is more to what might be called the "harbor waters" of Annapolis than just the canal between the City Docks known as Ego Alley. And if one really looks around there is more vessel traffic to see than just yachts. But in terms of real revenues to the City its pretty much just yachts. Ego Alley opens into a "creek" (actually a very stable tidally influenced finger of the larger Chesapeake Bay, which in turn empties into the mouth of the Severn River which far upstream from Annapolis down town actually is a river but near its mouth which forms no delta is a broad tidally influenced finger of the bay. The Severn empties into the Chesapeake Bay. Across the Severn is the U.S. Naval Support Center which houses the "yard trainers" for the Naval academy located on the downtown Annapolis side of the "river". There the Navy maintains traditional rather industrial looking boat yard activities servicing their own small craft which includes both the haze grey "65 foot training vessels but also Rigid inflatable hulls used for waterside security and a large recreational boat fleet consisting of Academy owned and boats and military personnel both active and retired personal recreational boats. Once in a while a small tug with derrick barge and /or some deck barges can be seen traveling between the Naval Academy on the downtown Annapolis side and the naval support Center on the opposite side of the Severn. This is a construction tender that repairs docks and break waters "up river" from the harbor waters of Annapolis. These few small tugs tend construction of in water structures ranging from some small public works to mostly private piers and break waters associated with large waterfront homes.

  1. Ships like this can not enter the old port of Annapolis but they do utilize an anchorage off the city's eastern shore. There are no launch services in Annapolis to service the anchorage. The ship pictured is not actually in the Annapolis anchorage but rather in the Gulf of Aden. If you look carefully you'll see that a small craft is approaching the ships starboard aft quarter , the small launch that you see is not a commercial launch service but a boat  load of pirates.
 We wanted to illustrate the size of vessels we ere talking about and needed a picture in the public domain. This one was described as an official USN Photo. Some times we are both cheap and expedient, but we are always cheap.

 A visitor can actually see a portion of the broad Chesapeake Bay from the city dock and occasionally may see large container ships, tankers, and bulk carriers either plying through or awaiting a Baltimore berth in "Annapolis Anchorage". The anchorage bearing the town's name provides no direct revenues and no readily observable commercial opportunities to the "port that it is located a stone's throw from. So in the waters that we might term the "observable harbor" the tourist sees mostly yachts but also an occasional small naval craft, passing small tug or off in the distance a large merchant ship.  Unlike that other southern capital  that we recently examined, Montgomery, Alabama; Annapolis was never in danger of being rendered or declared "non navigable". The city had little to do with what seemed like a "natural transition" from an ocean cargo port , to a commercial fishing port, to a mixed use small craft port, to one of the World's pen ultimate yacht havens.The city did not fight its loss of status as a port of entry for large seagoing ships , or the loss of the commercial fishing fleet. The city did "cooperate with the apparently inevitable and helped in the development of the yacht haven, even maintaining a harbor master service. But the only commercial vessels operating in the harbor are two day excursion boats and a couple of excursion sail boats.

 The city recently successfully converted an old building that once housed an element of the State's "fish cops" into the National Sailing Museum. But there are other buildings of historical interest that were created for commercial maritime enterprise that are persistently vacant or subject to serial commercial failure. Next to the famed Naval hangout, The Fleet Reserve Club there existed for many decades a marine hardware store. The store evolved in the era of commercial fishing and survived well into the era of yacht dominance, but could not survive the evolution of the recreational boating equivalent of the "Big Box Stores". While many of the old marine rigging shops, hard ware stores, outfitter buildings have now been converted into successful restaurants, the city fathers want to maintain the "maritime character" of the area.  Unfortunately for the property owner of the once prosperous boat hardware distributor site the building isn't large enough to attract a big box operator in marine hardware .

 With the nearby heavy commercial ship traffic now being administered as an interrelated  part of the port of Baltimore the Customs inspectors, most of the Coast Guard boarding officers and agricultural inspectors, or classification society marine surveyors, or other marine surveyors use launch services out of Baltimore when they have to visit ships in Annapolis Anchorage. The former retail space now too small to re-assume the role of marine hardware store is cut off from use as a launch service office, marine surveyors office (unless a company specializing in yachts), or federal maritime police or regulatory agency office. Annapolis can see the ocean traffic but lets it pass by without a thought to its potential as a revenue source for the city or even as an addition to the tourist interest in the town.

 When the ocean ships of the day became too large to call at the old colonial city dock sites, Annapolis wrote off deep sea, deep draft commerce though it was only a rifle shot from deep water. Promoted correctly Annapolis Anchorage even though now irretrievably in the hands of Baltimore could still be tapped as a source of new business opportunities by the city of Annapolis.When we next get a chance to examine this issue we'll look at how some other former ports prospered as "gateways" and providers of ":lay berths". A port's development should never be considered "final". Things change over time, commercial navigability is never something that a city should be willing to give up. Annapolis, now in the top tier of towns vying for the title "Sailing Capital of the United States" still thinks of itself as a naval or maritime town and so it is, but it did not have to give up on commercial navigation. It still doesn't have to.

 Why is it that some towns like Houston will go to great lengths to artificially create navigability, where there was none, and others blessed with natural navigability will wax and wain over the exploitation or improvement of navigability. Where a town is navigable, no effort should be spared to improve and expand navigability.

to  be continued.......

Daiwa D-Shock 170 Yards 8 Line 6 1/2-Feet Fibreglass Spin Combo (Medium)