Under Construction
 Image NASA 
Welcome to our newest page where we explore the science and implications behind the technologies being explored by Helios Ruehls, Inc. Many of the posts and articles found here have appeared earlier in other sections of the American Admiralty Books blog. Newer items may appear here first in the future. The primary purpose of this section is to place all of the Helios Ruehls, Inc. input into the blog in one place for ready retrieval.

Eventually this will become a separate blog. In the meantime this particular page will serve as the Home page in formation. Simply scroll down for additional posts. Until we do separate our maritime efforts from our physics and optical physics efforts you will find notices, and useful links on this particular post , at the moment simply located at the top of the scroll presently occupying a "Special interest section" of the American Admiralty Books Blog.  Readers will no doubt notice the unique naval focus of some of the posts by Helios Ruehls, Inc, these predate the formation of the Helios Ruehls Marine Division. These early posts are indicative of the long standing interest of the company in formalizing its naval and maritime interests,You will also find in this section posts on developments in physics and optical physics unattached to any specific commercial application, much less a specific naval or maritime use. Yet these same posts point to early players in the fields identified and some times provide useful investor information for the highly speculative investor. No such information should be construed as investment advice

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Last Edit 3/30/2020


EDITOR'S NOTE: We have extensively edited from earlier versions of this essay due to two major events in the evolving history of the Space Force. First the Space Force has made its first satellite launch and has put out a solicitation for a contractor to run a research center. These are note worthy events that no doubt will be commemorated in future historical accounts of the evolution of the Space Force. Our observations and opinions about that evolution have not changed but we found some of our suggestions to be over detailed and we wanted to make room to acknowledge the satellite launch and bid solicitation. Both however were Air Force legacy systems we still maintain that the Space Force is under funded and will likely face funding difficulties for some time into the future. More details on on these tow historical events are the body of the text.   

Seal of the United States Space Force.svg

China (The"Dragon") is in engaged to over take us in space. The Dragon doesn't subscribe to the "we come for all mankind","no territorial claims in space, mentality that the United States (The Eagle) does. We know this because China openly says so and their present behavior in the great commons of the sea predicts it. (See: THE DRAGON IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND OUTER SPACE). The Dragon is running a full blown Manhattan Project tempo of effort to dominate in space and in the space industry on earth.  China appears to have no intention of honoring the present treaties against weapons in space. The Dragon also refuses to adhere to the growing international law that makes space part of the commons . In short the Imperial Dragon has territorial ambitions in Space. If the Dragon  gains this high ground ; then the Dragon will dictate to the planet using hard military ordinance on target from an unassailable position, or softer economic power. If the Dragon ascends faster than the Eagle in space every nation on earth will be simply a vassal state to China. 

 Yes, we went to the moon over 50 years ago, but since then we have concentrated on manned space flight to and from an orbiting space station unmanned science missions . and the privatization of the space industries. We don't have a 50 year lead on China any more , we have about a three to 5 year lead if the Chinese continue at their present pace and we continue to lag along. 

This happened over 50 years ago. We never claimed any territory but our claim that the moon and space generally are a "Commons" will fall if China beats us at building a permanent moon base. The Dragon will arrive possibly in as little as 3 years,The Eagle may be a year or more behind the Dragon's landing (Image courtesy of NASA)
China is leapfrogging over certain steps to a moon landing thanks to the knowledge we left in our wake on our voyage to the moon. They have certainly mastered all of the orbital capsule skills of our Gemini program and more. . 
This is where most of our space money and effort on manned space flight went since the moon landing. If we had established a manned moon base in the years following our landing we would be in a better position to get our "Space is a commons of all mankind"  policy turned into codified international law. It's not too late but we have to hurry. The Dragon wants to homestead space.Any planet they get to before us they will lay claim to and attempt to exclude us.

Image NASA.  unmanned science projects returned information freely exchanged

  Most recently the Eagle (USA) and the West generally have been focused on unmanned space probes, space based telescopes, and radio telescopes seeking more knowledge of space including beyond our solar system. We share this knowledge freely. We were just now getting back into manned space travel but again only to orbital space stations. Then, the President declared it to be NASA's goal to return to the moon within 5 years. At this writing (March 30, 2020) The Democrats control the House where they have obstructed everything this president has tried to do and they appear to hate military, border control, and space endeavors. Citing a maritime parallel to our space competition with China, Steven L. Kwast, a retired Air Force general and former commander of the Air Education and Training Command at Joint Base San Antonio-Randolph, Texas noted in a recent speech; "Today, while America is building lighthouses and listening stations that can see and hear what is happening in space, China is building battleships and destroyers that can move fast and strike hard—the equivalent of a Navy in space." China is winning the space race not because it makes better equipment, but because it has a more single minded purpose. "The Chinese are open about their plan to become the dominant power in space by 2049, the centennial of the end of the Communist Chinese Revolution and of the founding of the People’s Republic of China under Mao Zedong. " 

 President Trump directed the Department of Defense (DOD) to start the formation of a "Space Force" as our 6th branch of the armed forces in June of 2018. The Congress appeared to approve and provided a small appropriation. But the Congress made it clear that they expected the new service to be carved out of parts of the Air Force and other DOD organizations. The Congress has made it fairly clear that they intend to starve the Space Force as much as they have starved the border wall. None the less there is much that a designated Space Force could accomplish while waiting for the adults to return to power in Washington. We must have a distinct "Space Force" because Space is the new high ground and who so ever controls space will control the earth just as it was once and still true : "he who controls the sea rules the world".

Public Domain Image. Artist depiction of a weaponized satellite

  Think about it , with our robotic vehicles exploring the surface of Mars, and our space telescopes observing the universe, and our near constant publication of findings; we are giving the Dragon all of the geographic information it needs to select targets and landing sites. The Dragon is not contributing to science. It is using our information, freely shared, to avoid the costs of unmanned space probes, and orbital telescopes and any other contributions to space science. The Dragon is concentrated on orbital satellites some of which can be weaponized, if they already aren't, and manned space flight. The concentration on orbital satellite operations is for the express capability of controlling military conflict to the Dragon's advantage from the seemingly unassailable high ground of orbital space. 

 The China's concentration on Manned space flight is for being able to launch rescue and repair missions for their orbital hard ware, and to get to the planets of our solar system before anyone else. These the Dragon intends to occupy to the exclusion of any other nation with the skill, technology, and funding to reach them. The Chinese push into space is all about technology, they leave the exobiology, space geography, search for water, and minerals to us. We will tell them where the good stuff is and they will go get it for their exclusive use or control of distribution. We find Gen. Kwask 's  assessment of a Chinese Navy forming in space to be an accurate statement following a parallel course that we long ago described in our on line book in progress "Space AS An Ocean"or Protocols

Image PD: We are building and operating these while the Dragon is intent on creating these:Star Wars Ship - Super Star Destroyer

 Remember: "The Chinese are open about their plan to become the dominant power in space by 2049, the centennial of the end of the Communist Chinese Revolution and of the founding of the People’s Republic of China under Mao Zedong." (U.S. Air Force Retired General Kawst)

 Enter Our Space Force. The Department of Defense (DOD) envisions a Space Force that provides services similar to certain services now provided by the Air Force. The DOD institutional vision for a Space Force at the moment is one that continues to perform the task that current space assets perform—supporting wars on the surface of the Earth. We need that mission, but we also need a Space Force eventually capable of launching and landing an armed force to the outer most planets of our solar system. and area denial missions far from beyond the dark side of the moon .The enumerated missions of the Space Force include what seems to be a mixture of the two types of services but only support of  earth based warfare seems to be getting any funding: Here are the specific missions mentioned in law so far:  The Space Force is specifically responsible for organizing, training, and equipping forces for the following mission sets
  • Space superiority
  • Space domain awareness (military, civil, and commercial)
  • Offensive and defensive space control
  • Command and control of space forces and satellite operations
  • Space support to operations (e.g. satellite communications)
  • Space service support (e.g. space lift and space range operations for military, civil, and commercial operators)
  • Space support to nuclear command, control, communications and nuclear detonation detection
  • Missile warning and space support to missile defense operation

 We must look at space operations beyond our present geocentric orbiting devices,and the moon, earth orbit, and a moon base, or even a Mars Colony will not deter the Dragon's very clear territorial intentions. The task that current space assets perform—supporting military operations on the surface of the Earth is vital today and will be for years to come. Unfortunately, the  Air Force today seems as institutionally unable to envision operations of access and denial in deep space as once the Army Air Corps was reluctant to embrace the idea of a separate air force. The Air Force, out of which Congress thinks it will get most of the assets for a Space Force sees the Space Force as projecting power through air, space, and cyberspace, from basically our geocentric orbiting devices and stations. The Air Force institutional understanding  appears to preclude space beyond our geocentric orbits . If the Space force is ever going to become our sixth armed service in reality it has to find the missions now that make a big difference to our national security and can be afforded on a shoe string budgetWe agree entirely with General Kawst's overall view,.but we don't see the Congress or the Air  Force changing their position any time soon. The Dragon intends to occupy the solar system, we will need a force that can operate beyond earth orbit and the moon. Like it or not, we are in an arms race in space.  

 However,  fortunately at the moment, the immediate focus is on influencing military operations from space. In the short term the Air Force's view point is important. One of the most important things that a Space Force could do right now is to concentrate on SPACE CAPABILITIES , PROTECTION AND RAPID RESTORATION. This mission set is vital to our defense capabilities, serves as a deterrent and drag factor on the Dragon's ambitions, and cost very little of rare Space Force Money to get started. By concentrating on SPACE CAPABILITIES RESTORATION , PROTECTION , AND RAPID RESTORATION, the Space Force will come out of the gate with major notice, growing public support, decreased Air Force and Congressional resistance, Here are some examples of what we mean by SPACE CAPABILITIES PROTECTION AND RAPID RESTORATION .


  The Dragon will target at great expense our GPS navigation systems. This is one reason why the United States Naval Academy re-instituted the study of celestial navigation. 
Paper charts and references, sextants, dividers, parallel rulers and Chronometers are very inexpensive compared to GPS systems, or the systems the Dragon plans to Knock ours out with. But if our ship navigators retain their traditional navigation skills.and tools our degree of navigational accuracy., post successful enemy attack, in getting on station to deliver ordinance to target  falls from minus 50 feet to plus or minus 200 yards. This is not enough of a degradation to deter us from firing.  This was all we had in WWII and for a long time afterward. The problem with the Navy's approach is in the lack of quantity. 

 We can't just limit the traditional navigational skills sets to Academy trained officers. Nor can we limit the distribution of traditional navigation instruments, charts, and reference works to just a few flag ships. The Navy and the Coast Guard, have morphed their traditional Quartermaster rates (Navigational assistant) into a more electronically orientated "Operations Rate". Coast wise and celestial navigation should be reintroduced to the Operations Ratings starting at the E-5 level. and culminating with a competent celestial navigator by E-7. The Space Force should be an open advocate of such moves because this is a low cost earth based, almost impossible to effectively counter rapid restoration of a space based capability. 

 The Space Force should lend  academic development help to the over all program and be the primary advocate to the Navy for adoption of the program. The Navy has less interest in slowing the progress of a Space Force and makes a good target for forming an initial alliance within the now widely accepted concept of "jointness". 

The Coast Guard has a very limited budget and many "unfunded mandates". The USCG uses a model of only creating and supporting those schools that are unique to certain Coast Guard missions. For most other training the USCG utilizes existing DOD schools or contractor short courses. It is a lot cheaper to lobby for a few placements within an existing school than to create and maintain a school. After more than a century the U.S. Marine Corps still prepares career officers at the U.S. Naval Academy. By establishing a Space Force career track at the Air Force Academy the Space Force saves millions while waiting for the adults to return to Washington. A Space Force career track within the Air Force Academy also tends to placate the fear within the Air Force that they are being kicked to the side of the road on space missions. None of these considerations however, should stop the Space Force from immediately getting some of their personnel into NASA astronaut training and participation in NASA missions especially those that involve building or repair in space. The Space Force needs its own cadre of experienced astronauts as soon as possible. Riding piggy back with NASA is the fast and inexpensive way to do it.


 Any high altitude nuclear detonation over the United States would knock out not only our space based navigational systems, but also a big part of our communications infrastructure and even much of our motorized transportation system. Here again in cooperation with other services a Space Force could lead the way with cheap but effective earth based protective measures.such as the Faraday cage . Just place an electrical generator and a radio into a Faraday cage and you have a communications device that is highly resistant to attack. 

 Now suppose the Navy started with a Space Force inspired and coordinated event involving only three initial Faraday Cage protected radios and generators. One could be placed in the Pentagon,. one in San Diego, one on board a flag ship heading up a test flotilla. out ward bound from San Diego. Other radios could be silenced as the Navy demonstrated the ability to communicate over long distances after an enemy high level nuclear detonation. Communications between the flag ship and other flotilla vessels would be by visual signaling as it is often done today for security of tactical information. Give the Ship's crews liberty in Hawaii and tell the local press what the mission was all about . 

 The Dragon watches the local press in Hawaii. They will drive themselves crazy to find out the scope and depth of the experiment. That is a good thing, possibly even a drag on Chinese research. into the attack we already fear from the Dragon.. As for the Dragon learning the extend and depth of the development; all we need do is continue to expand on the system by putting more and more vital communications and response equipment into Faraday cages. The Space Force will be able to get a lot of help in spreading this earth based space capability protection. The Army Signal Corps comes to mind as they have the skill sets to construct even large Faraday cages  capable of protecting motor vehicles and small power generation plants. 

 The Coast Guard Auxiliary has a group of ham operators who have global reach already . Many of their radios and generators can readily be protected by equipment presently sold on Amazon.  Imagine the effect on Chinese naval intelligence if a net work of CG Auxiliary Ham operators were to light up after our Test Flotilla reached Hawaii. This earth bound protection against the dreaded high altitude nuclear detonation may be implemented quickly or evolve over time depending on the cooperation of the sister services and Congress. However as long as it is clear to the Dragon that it is being implemented its very existence is a deterrent against rash action. Remember that the U.S. came out on top in the Cold war largely because we broke the economic back of the Soviet Union in an arms race they could not afford. Yes, we can spend a lot, but also frugality and simplicity and net working have a role to play in making our defenses a deterrent. We can spend billions less on very effective earth based rapid recovery of space based capabilities than what the Chinese will have to spend to build attack systems that will never have the effect they are hoping for. Whether working the low tech or high tech , high end deterrent systems, a successful Space Force should have as its highest goal the same goal as the Department of  Homeland Security ... make sure nothing happens. 

 Once with the help and open advocacy of the Space Force our Navy has demonstrated its ability to communicate with our fleet around the world, and to position our ships to combat advantage after the total loss of our GPS and other space based navigation and communications systems we are ready to address tactical effectiveness and fire control after such losses. The first step is cataloging naval fire power by guidance system.a task the Navy would probably agree is necessary  but would welcome outside help in getting the job done. The Navy still carries naval artillery. We put shot on target using pointing. training, computation of high angle fire etc, , computers welcome but not required. However, what about naval missiles, air craft, and drones both water borne and air borne? Remember the fleet at sea is unlikely to be disabled by a high altitude nuclear burst over the United States.The the fleet could have its space system guided ordnance rendered useless by having our navigational satellites attacked by enemy satellites.Some of these assets are designed to be self guided, However ,others require guidance from space. Here a cataloging chore is needed. Minus our naval weapons guided from space capabilities that we are likely to lose in the face of a preemptive attack how much residual controllable fire power do we have in the fleet? How should the knowledge of this affect future development and acquisitions of both the Navy and the Space Force.  In all cases we want to have serious naval punching power coming out of a preemptive attack. A viable space force ahead of the game in space capabilities protection, and restoration can help. 

  As for the Dragon its intelligence services will learn eventually that we have growing protection from loss of space based services via almost impossible to knock out low tech, earth based arts and systems, The Dragon will learn that we have arranged these back up programs with the express intent of having lots of surviving and effective naval fire power in the event of preemptive attack. Whats a Dragon to do? Invest in a still larger Navy? Invest in more expensive  orbital systems? A program such as this initial survey, inventory, and organizational redirection does not force much in the way of immediate expenses on us, but an aggressor will be facing a higher bar. Such an approach sends the focus of this seemingly most expensive arms race back down to earth, particularly to the naval realm, re-enforcing and prolonging the concept "that he who rules the seas, rules the world." and delaying any real warfare in space for a while longer. It falls in line with what ought to be the Space Force's reason for existence; making sure nothing happens. 

 Having said all that  there have been in the last few weeks (This written March 30, 2020 ) some notable Space Force accomplishments. The U.S.Space Force Space and Missile System Center (An Air Force Legacy.) released a solicitation for a 10 year contract to manage the Space Enterprise. Consortium. This is in keeping with the Space Force Mission of " Revolutionize manufacturing by acquiring and deploying resources from space and in space (Promote the growth of the U.S. Space Industry). The Coast Guard  and Maritime Administration have a sharp dividing line. The Maritime Administration has the task of insuring that there is an American Merchant Marine. The Coast Guard  assures the safety of this critical defense related industry. The net result is a common saying among U.S. Merchant Marine Officers; "The Coast Guard insures the safety of the largest non existent merchant marine in the world." We have little American history of putting the promotion and regulation of a vital defense related industry under a single agency.  We should proceed carefully this is new turf. 

 Also in recent days (this written March 30, 2020), the Space Force launched its first unmanned mission with the help of civilian contractors. A United Launch Alliance Atlas Five rocket carried a U.S. Space Force communications satellite into orbit from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Again this was likely an Air Force legacy operation that involved very little Space Force funding, but an important experience for the Space Force and a great PR opportunity if the main stream media had paid any attention..  l  . 

We expect funding to be scarce for the Space Force as long as Democrats have any say so in the budget process. Thus  assistance to the Naval Establishment can yield a lot of good PR within and without the Department of Defense.  . While a return to paper navigation skills assures us of the ability to place naval firepower where it needs to be, this is not a navigation system for a single seat fighter bomber. In Vietnam the Coast Guard operated LORAN systems. When LORAN appeared to be becoming obsolete the USCG proposed other land based solutions that required fewer broadcasting stations.  One system was supposed to provide global electronic navigation services using only eight earth based stations, The Space Force could again provide a serious contribution by urging the Coast to reexamine such systems. Receivers for any non space based navigation system, operable by a pilot or flight officer should be installed and tested on some flight leader manned air craft. By providing encouragement and possibly some funding assistance with the early testing and development phase.the Space Force again drives naval improvement at low cost during a time when the Navy's brass are struggling to keep a minimum ship building program going in the face of a hostile Congress.. 

 There are of course space capabilities that we need which don't lend themselves to the low tech  solutions that we have outlined for naval navigation and communications losses. Some of these will require expensive solutions such as hidden orbital replacement satellites, and ready on the launch pad replacement  orbital systems, These are the immediately needed high end.portion of the Space Force's defense contribution. Unfortunately this part of space capabilities reconstruction forces do not appear on  the budget agenda in the immediately foreseeable future. The Air Force has some of these types of assets but will only let go of them to the Space Force gradually. 

 What about the totally necessary ability of the Space Force to project power in space beyond earth orbit and the moon?  The Space Force needs time to build up competencies and resources and a public image before expecting Congress to provide funding. The Space Force presently envisioned by the DOD, especially the Air Force lacks these essential; capabilities.  "Correspondingly, the Defense Department and Congress think that the Air Force should build the Space Force. So far, this has amounted to the Air Force planning to improve the current Satellite Command incrementally and call it a Space Force. It is not planning to accelerate the new space economy with dual-use technologies. It is not planning to protect the Moon or travel corridors in space to and from resource locations.  Raw materials worth trillions of dollars are available within a few days’ travel from Earth, and other strategic high grounds. It is not planning to place human beings in space to build and protect innovative solutions to the challenges posed by the physical environment. The present development  plan does not include  developing means to rescue Americans who may get stranded or lost in space."  

 Our Analysis suggest that the wisest course for the new Space Force right out of the box is an acceptance of the limits the Air Force is placing upon it. The Air force will be controlling much of the budget in the first years. However the Space Force should adopt in a quite public manner a "joint forces approach" and start with some highly effective but low costs assistance to the Navy. Marine Corps, Coast Guard team.The Air Force will have a difficult time being critical of the new service's immediate orientation towards space capabilities RECONSTRUCTION, PROTECTION, AND RAPID RESTORATION

We don't see how the Space Force can promote the U.S. space industries if isn't also involved in their regulation. An armed service doing regulatory work faces constitutional hurdles in the United States . But it is done. The US Coast Guard enforces all Federal Laws on the High Seas and territorial waters of the United States. The Coast Guard regulates the safety of our Merchant Marine from vessel inspections to the licensing of officers and the certification of the ratings. In order to do these things the Coast Guard is housed away from the Department of Defense. There exists legal fast tracks to make the entire service a separate and distinct service within the Navy , or to "second" particular personnel and or vessels, or air craft to Navy in times of national emergency, or as a matter of routine when serious DOD needs for Coast Guard services arise.The evolving Space Force will soon find itself involved in some major regulatory situations based on the long range mission plans for the service. 

Enter Rapid Recovery Systems:

Below are some of the big budget, near term missions for the Space Force not likely to draw institutional fire from the Air Force. All of these missions address near term threats to our ability to control armed conflict on earth which is where the Air Force focus is at the moment. But the President had much more in mind in terms of tasking for the Space Force. As we mentioned earlier the eventual missions of the Space Force will go beyond earth orbital, Moon, and Mars related activity. Among the eventual missions envisioned beyond the near earth missions : 

  • Develop a deterrence capability that will render ICBMs and nuclear weapons useless relics of the past. Remember a primary focus of the Space Force is to help assure that NOTHING HAPPENS. 
  • Defend Earth against small asteroids like the one that hit Russia in 2013. and eventually large asteroids as well. 
  • Reduce the loss of life and property due to natural disasters by managing the eyes of hurricanes and the funnels of tornadoes with energy from space. 
  • Provide a shelter in space for the  protection  and preservation of  people, seeds, animals and life-saving medicines, so humanity can recover from any unexpected contamination.
  • Design space based defense capabilities to preserve our economy, and our population .

  • Other Activities of the eventual mature Space Force would include some activities that are routinely done by other armed forces in concert with other industries. Remember the Chinese intend to not only dominate space physically by 2049 but also to dominate the space industries on earth.  Our Space Force must be ready early on to protect its industrial production and supply lines. The present existing armed forces do this in a variety of ways mostly involving assurance of multiple providers, by spreading production work around multiple providers. The other armed forces also monitor economically weak but important providers and try to send them some work in time to prevent closure of production lines. Additionally the older DOD agencies provide research grants This type of cooperation requires no new legislation other than funding. Here are some of the cooperative space industry protective measures that some proponents of the Space Force have proposed:
  • Provide fresh water for every human without the need for aquifers or pipes.
  • Build a new low-cost internet that is designed to be secure so that every human can connect, share, and learn with assured privacy .
  • Deliver unlimited, clean, affordable energy to every human on the planet with less terrestrial infrastructure and dramatically less cost.
  • Revolutionize manufacturing by acquiring and deploying resources from space and in space. Early on this would include manufacturing of certain commodities like certain pharmaceuticals that we already know would be greatly improved by manufacture in a low to no G environment.  
  • IF THE SPACE FORCE IS GOING TO PLAY A KEY ROLE IN ASSURING THAT THE UNITED STATES DOESN'T FALL BEHIND CHINA IN OVERALL SPACE INDUSTRIES IT WILL EVENTUALLY HAVE TO ASSUME SOME POWERS OF REGULATION. Under the U.S. Constitution it is very difficult to assign regulatory functions to an armed forces but it has been done. The U.S. Coast Guard lawfully exercises comprehensive safety regulation over the U.S. Maritime industries including the licensing of Merchant Marine Officers and the certification of seamen as well as environmental regulation. The Coast Guard is now tasked with enforcing "all federal laws"  on the High Seas and navigable waters of the United States. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is tasked with navigational and flood control infrastructure building including with "partners" such as industry groups, state and local governments, particularly on a cost sharing basis. As a logical out come of this infrastructure work, the Corps had been given certain regulatory authorities over the navigable waters of the U.S. .

  • Design defense capabilities probably including earth based intelligence programs to preserve our economy, our population, and our infrastructure such as our power lines and terrestrial power plants. .
  • Revolutionize manufacturing by acquiring and deploying resources from space and in space. This opens the door to some early on opportunities unusual for an American Armed Force but hardly unheard of elsewhere in the world. We already know of certain products that would be vitally enhanced by manufacture in a low G or 0 G environment. The companies involved can't spare the type of capital it takes for orbital manufacturing sites , or launch services to support delivery of supplies and finished product. However, some of these products are far more valuable than gold. In the case of some pharmaceutical products a shoe box of product is worth more than a truck load of gold. Some spare space in both Space Force stations and service vehicles could open the doors to a unique partnership The Space Force is expected to facilitate the rapid growth of space industries .and could always use the money. Chinese and Russian armed forces engage in this sort of funding activity all the time.  The first use of paid advertising in space was when the `Russians launched a rocket with a Dominoes Pizza logo painted on the side, Eventually the early users of Space Force business incubators will be able to afford their own dedicated orbital manufacturing facilities and shuttle services but some space industrial incubator spaces on Space Force stations and vehicles will quickly be taken up by other start ups. More over with other military needs of the force difficult to determine , and space search and rescue definitely on the agenda, extra cargo and passenger room is prudent in such designs. .Take a close look into the U.S Navy's present day "sea-lift" problems and lets avoid their parallels in Space. ::



It is also clear that early proponents of a Space Force envision space search and rescue as one of its missions. 

 U.S. Coast Guard history indicates that their famous search and rescue at sea capacities evolved over time starting with nothing more than permissive authority to engage in search and rescue. That mission now dominates the public image of the US Coast Guard and forms a major part of each annual budget. We are just about certain that something similar will evolve with the Space Force. 

 We, Helios Ruehls, Inc.; envision one more mission set for the Space Force that seems to be over looked by the early proponents, Space sanitation , the prevention of an outer space based repeat of the "Colombian Exchange" a terrestrial event from 1492 that we are still suffering from. Think of the sea lampreys that have invaded the U.S. Great Lakes, and the flying carp trying to get into the Great Lakes from rivers where they are already well established, the python and iguana invasions of Florida, the walking catfish, fire ants, and kudzu vine. We are going to be bringing back soil samples from other planets very soon with industrial sized shipments following on in the more distant future. For many years a uniformed and para-naval organization had taken over such sanitation duties at U. S. Seaports and air terminals  That uniformed service was the U.S. Public Health Service. Service Dress Blues Summer Whites File:Summer khakis.jpg

 The PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE (USPHS) lost most of the sanitation mission set along with the provision of free medical services to the U.S. Merchant Marine during the Reagan administration. With a few decades to look back on we find that the prevention of exotic intrusion  ( introduction of plants and animals not considered pests in their native environments but very destructive in new environments ) has become everyone's problem and thus no one's problem. Exotic intrusion is increasing and increasingly destructive while the Department of Agriculture, the Coast Guard, and state and local agencies are all trying to do bits and pieces of the job that the USPHS did comprehensively and with military dedication. One obviously net result is that if you visit any American port today "rat guards "are rarely seen on the mooring lines of ships from all over the world. Rodents get on and off without difficulty and with them all of the insects and micro organisms they carry.

 Its called the "Colombian Exchange" and it has been global since 1492. from snakes in Guam,  to rabbits in Australia, to lion fish in Florida's coastal waters,  It has also been benign to beneficial in terms of domestic plants and wildlife; potatoes from the Andes to Ireland. Corn from North America to Europe, horses reintroduced to North America. However along with the wild horses came feral hogs now destroying wild life habitat all across the South.The flue travels globally annually now. Sometimes seeming new viruses appear as was the case with the Coronavirus  (C-19 ) virus that swept the world in 2019-2020. While scientific opinion differs on whether or not virus constitutes a life form, they reproduce and are transported by life forms.  Consider that it has been shown that viruses can survive earth atmospheric entry. Given what we now know about our solar system, a virus is a most likely unwanted hitch hiker on a return soil sample, Early on a Space Force must establish authority for sanitation aboard American space vehicles,.be prepared to render international services for nations that request it, become the voice of the United States in forums and tribunals where international law on such matters is being hammered out, if you will, a national lobbyist for space sanitation. Again, unusual for an armed service but, the Coast Guard is our representative before the UN's International Maritime Safety groups and takes a lead role in Arctic councils. Unusual but far from unheard of.

 The Dragon has shown its willingness to use "law fare" to attempt to change international law as it applies to the sea. There is no reason that they won't launch an effort related to space. The Space Force must develop and maintain a legal corps well schooled in international law especially the emerging field of Space law. When the Dragon escapes its lair and heads to the international court houses the American Space Force must follow and contest. The American Space Force also shouldn't be above aiming some "law fare " at the Dragon in preemptive legal strikes to keep harmful cases from even being heard. bad behavior at sea predicts bad behavior in space.;  

 THE DRAGON IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND OUTER SPACE   (https://americanadmiraltybooks.blogspot.com/2019/10/the-dragon-in-south-china-sea-and-outer.html)

A lot of this sounds like science fiction or futurist writing  to the average American including politicians. But here at Helios Ruehls , Inc where we keep an eye on emerging technologies including for investment purposes these things look to be anywhere from a few years before emerging as technological realities to a few decades away. Its our opinion that a robust American Space Force is needed as soon as possible and must be overwhelming. We have witnessed the birth of such a corps and negative atmosphere into it which it emerged. This is why we suggest the low tech, low cost initial actions and early partnership with the Navy while support builds for the wide variety of missions that we need a Space Force for. Our examination of the potential of a Space Force suggests that while it must presently operate under largely Air Force imposed conditions, the future developed service more resembles a coast guard in space than a high altitude Air Force  element or traditional navy. Most closely the future Space Force appear to resemble the U.S. Coast Guard during the Cold War. To insure that "nothing happens" the Space Force must anticipate the enemy's intentions and throw up an effective deterrent, be it political, budget related, or legal. Immediate contact with and services aimed at the naval establishment  as described earlier in this report would render big benefits to the future development of the service. Study of U.S. Coast Guard history and modern organization would be of great benefit to all senior officers. 

 For Helios Ruehls, Inc
 R.F. Bollinger, Analyst

Copy right notes: This "White Paper" has been prepared in the public interest by Helios Ruehls, Inc. for free distribution to Air Force, Space Force, Naval, and academic interested parties. Such parties may use any part of the paper in whole or in part or as modified as they see fit to make a point or counter point under an extension of the "fair use"  provisions of U.S. copy right law. Other wise, copy right protections apply and if an interested party is not a member of one of the above groups permission will be required to republish.

About the author: R.F. Bollinger is a retired analyst for the DHS where he specialized in maritime matters . He is also a retired Merchant Marine Officer. Anyone wishing to make contact should alert the author via the comment section that follows the blog version of this report. 


Sponsored by Helios Ruehls, Inc.



"Mathematics may work so well to describe reality, perhaps because mathematics is the physical reality" During the time of the ancient Greeks there was a wide spread belief  in a "Realm of Forms" Supposedly in this realm the perfect triangle, the perfect circle, the perfect square, name your shape and the perfect version existed in "The Realm of Forms". Over time it became ever more apparent that the world was more complex than just imperfect forms. See: August 10, 1632 THE BATTLE OVER THE "INFINITESIMAL". As illustrated by the Great Namazu in his THE BATTLE OVER THE "INFINITESIMAL" there was actually an academic, religious, and political battle over the entire concept of any form of mathematics that didn't involve equations that arrived at a single "right" answer. The greatest minds of the era were all caught up in the battle over the Infinitesimals including GalileoNewtonBellarmineHobbs, Clavis, and Wallis. It was a long time between the official onset of the fight over "the infinitesimals" the evolution of serious mathematical systems to measure, estimate, and manipulate "complexity". The "one right answer" geometries of Euclid and the calculus of Newton were sufficient for us to figure out how to split the atom and travel to the moon, but at the level of Quantum Mechanics it became insufficient. In 1984  Benoit Mandelbrot published his Fractal Geometry and mathematics and science began to mathematically explore above the old Eculidian / Newtonian Line" . Where will it end? Watch the linked video below to explore the idea more deeply:




 At Helios Ruehls, Inc. We believe that the United States can not back down from stiff opposition to China's "Nine Dashed Line" claim to virtually the entirety of the South and East China Seas.  Their claims, if uncontested would literally encompass most of the internationally recognized territorial sea of the Philippines, as well as the entire Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the Philippines and other coastal states in the region. Moreover their claim if allowed to stand would eliminate all internationally recognized "international waters" from the region and subject all shipping to passage only with the permission of the Chinese Navy and Coast Guard. We are well aware that the US Navy has technological advantages over the much touted "carrier killer" missiles that China touts, and technological and experiential advantages over the far more numerically superior combined armed fleet of China, which also enjoys a much shorter logistic train. But we also believe the lesson of history, often articulated by various commentators in the U.S.NAVAL INSTITUTE'S PROCEEDINGS ; "Sometimes quantity has a quality all its' own". TO US THE  LESSON OF THE BISMARK IS THAT A BIG BUNCH OF LESS SOPHISTICATED AND CHEAPER SHIPS CAN GANG UP ON THE HIGH TECH FLOATING "DEATH STARS" AND WIPE OUT THE MORE SOPHISTICATED VESSEL. In this paper we look at some lower tech emerging and existing technologies that could help change the balance of power in the region. We do not advocate that the United States Navy stop work on the high tech ship anti missile defenses, and surface vessel defensive target acquisition and weapon technology. We rather advocate that the low cost, but novel technologies and technological blends we describe here in be implemented without delay for an immediate improvement in the situation.

The Advantages of our proposed blend of technologies: The blends of technologies that we will examine in this case study give our China Seas allies an advantage in economy and speed of effort in defeating a very specific maritime territorial expansion by an aggressive neighbor. Military leaders want their emerging and disruptive technologies to instantly provide capability, capacity, and availability. To convince the military leader that a technological mix is a game changer, it must be able to change the game, now. We believe that emerging developments that we work with in optical physics, and unique technologies that we routinely observe in the U.S. offshore oil industry could be blended to generate that instant game changer called “disruptive technology”. The particular “disruptive technological blend” that we will describe could turn the balance of power in the China Seas on its ear while avoiding actual warfare.

Just as the Soviet Union eventually conceded the Cold War because they couldn't afford it anymore; the technological blend we will describe herein, could completely destroy China's economic advantage over their maritime neighbors in asserting “effective administration” in the more remote areas of their respective EEZs. . At the moment only China can afford the costs of the civil engineering to fill the South and East China Seas with light houses, fishing support stations, and air craft runways, and patrol craft bases advancing their international legal claim of “effective administration” over what is otherwise parts of the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) of China's neighbors. The adoption of our proposed “anti-cabbage patch “ application of technologies in conjunction with the geographic advantage of the rightful owners of the relevant EEZs would move China's position from that of pushing for outright ownership of territory not its' own, by demonstrating “effective administration”, to cooperating in joint licensing of offshore mineral exploration in contested zones and peaceful negotiation with their neighbors over EEZ boundaries. The primary risk and barrier to success in this application is the simple fact that the best available technology for one part of the mix is not out of the lab yet. Mitigating the risk of untimely application due to unavailability of best technology is the existence of “good enough” technology that can yield the sought after advantage while the best available continues development.


China is engaged in a naval war of nerves with neighboring states around the East and South China Seas over the control of several sets of tiny, mostly uninhabited islands 1. The islands are only considered valuable because the seas around them are thought to be rich in oil and natural gas. *2,*3 China claims virtually the entire East and South China Seas as Chinese territorial waters, *the United Nations Law of the Sea Convention (UNCLOS) doesn't recognize closed seas, or generally territorial seas wider than 12 miles off of the coast line of coastal states. *China has little hope of winning the targeted area as their territorial sea in any forum of international law,*9 but their real goal may seem more attainable, an internationally recognized vast expansion of their Exclusive Economic Zone under UNCLOS at the expense of their neighbors. We believe their strategy could be defeated by a particular application of evolving and disruptive technologies.

At a place called Ayungin Shoal the Chinese strategy for conquering the islands they covet within their neighbor's rightful EEZ can be seen at work. At Ayungin Shoal a tiny contingent of Philippine Marines, sometimes as few as eight, keep the flag of the Philippines flying from a grounded wreck, still commissioned as a ship of the Philippine Navy as Chinese “Coast Guard” vessels encircle the wreck and discourage supply and support of the marines. The Marines are often reduced to surviving by catching rain water and fish.*10 Chinese commercial fishermen now organized into a “naval militia” work the waters around the shoal while the Chinese “Coast Guard” keeps Philippine fishermen out of the area. General Zhang Zhoazhong of the Peoples Liberation Army (PLA), “owners” of the Peoples Liberation Army's Navy (PLAN) recently articulated the Chinese Strategy for wrestling uninhabited islands and even militarily occupied islands without direct weapons engagement. The basic strategy is to surround such places with a dense fleet of commercial, law enforcement, and military vessels “as tight as leaves on a cabbage”.*5 Thus we have come to call the Chinese strategy for their China Seas land grab, “The Cabbage Patch Strategy”. General Zhoazhong believes that despite the tenacity of the Philippine Marines at Ayungin Shoal, eventually any and all forces or populations on the islands coveted will be starved out. With forces and populations eliminated China will assert “effective administration” over the targeted islands, a claim with some arguable legitimacy in International law.*5, *7, *9

The big flaw in the cabbage patch strategy is that more kinetic energy than that in a small atom bomb can be applied to the situation without either side firing a shot. The source of the introduction of kinetic energy into the situation is the typhoon. *12 The advantage to the Philippines and other states in contest with China over islands and shoals in their Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) is geography. China is pursuing the legal argument of “effective administration” over the Islands they have chosen to claim.*6 & *7 This is the same argument that the United States once used to gain control over the “Guano Islands” in the nineteenth century. The UN Charter bans permanent acquisition of territory by conquest, and present International law recognizes “effective settlement” as the most acceptable argument in territorial disputes over outlying, sparsely settled, and remote territories.*7 China's approach is twofold. Using conventional and very expensive and slow civil engineering technology, China is building manned facilities on shoals and islands that were never suitable for human habitation. From these, plus the efforts of their vastly expanded new “Coast Guard” they conduct activities designed to bolster their claims of “effective administration”, and on their larger developments even “effective settlement”.*7 Where they are not building physical facilities they conduct their “Cabbage Patch Strategy”. But certainly their cabbage fleets must evacuate in the face of typhoons which can pretty much be counted on to hit some part of the area every year. Even some of their man made facilities may be wiped out in such circumstances.

The Chinese strategy has been working because their neighbors don't have the economies to physically colonize the islands within their EEZs that are traditionally uninhabitable with appreciable speed.*8 The Philippines and other neighbors beset by the Chinese Cabbage Fleet have a geographical advantage as the typhoons generally pass over them first as they come in from the Pacific and often leaving them clear just as the Chinese mainland is being hit.*8 If only they had the technology to race behind the typhoon and establish man made and manned structures on their rocks and shoals before the Chinese could return. What the Philippines and other Chinese “First Island Chain” neighbors lack is a collection of emerging and disruptive technologies that result in instant civil engineering of durable but low cost off shore structures. We submit that those technologies are evolving, yet available and affordable.


We have a tendency when considering “emerging and disruptive technologies” in a military milieu as coming from the far edges of scientific research and applications. However, sometimes a disruptive technology evolves from arts and crafts. It has been hundreds of years since the profession of “Boat wright” now considered a “skilled trade” or “craft” separated from the “profession” of “naval architect”. Yet the very first “elevating work boats” (“lift boats”) used in the coastal Louisiana oil exploration and production industries originated in the work shop of a “Boat wright”. *11 These vessels capable of efficient self-propulsion are also capable of “jacking up” a set of steel “legs” carried in wells at each corner or two at the bow and one at the stern until the bottom of their barge like hull has completely cleared the water's surface , by anywhere from four to 15 or more feet. The barge like hull can be fitted out in a variety of ways and a variety of superstructures and deck equipment may be fitted. The Louisiana “elevating work boat “ is an authentic COTS (commercial off the shelf) plug and play technology platform. It has been used for well work over, shallow exploratory drilling, well relief' and a variety of other functions in the near coastal “oil patch” of the U.S. Gulf Coast for decades. Yet elevating work boats in terms of other applications are still an “emerging technology”. Used to help defeat China's cabbage patch strategy, they can be part of a disruptive technology package. 

Artist image of an advanced elevating work boat design from BENNETT OFFSHORE  http://www.bennettoffshore.com/3500.html

Self-propelled elevating work boats should be the base platform for the rest of the technology package that will confound the Chinese cabbage patch strategy. The best way to integrate the evolving technologies of the offshore “oil patch” into the fleet for eventual or occasional tactical use by the Navy, Coast Guard or Marine Corps we think, is by formation of a Navy/Coast Guard “craft of opportunity unit". Such a unit would study and catalog developments of potential naval utility in the U.S. work boat industry, monitor production lines, and track markets for new and used equipment against the day the need arises. It could be a very small unit led by a naval architect, with a surface warfare specialists as XO, and manned by a few junior officers with marine engineering and surface warfare training and some senior deck , engineering, and ordinance rates. The units main expenses would be a travel and operations budget and office spaces. Acquisition funding for craft of opportunity would have to come from higher command and / or the receiving state.

Some of the package comes from “craftsman like innovations” by the Gunner's mate rate in collaboration with Army artillery NCOs. In our plan for fleet integration the Navy gunners would already be part of the “craft of opportunity unit”, the army personnel on collaborative loan for a single project. The last part of the disruptive technology package comes from the far end of the scientific spectrum, requiring an understanding of complexity theory and the crossing of the“Newtonian/Euclidean line” *13 in mathematics. This “best available technology” piece would probably come to the craft of opportunity unit via DARPA, through private labs such as our own Helios Ruehls, Inc.

The basic strategy is to mark, equip, weaponize, and securely store a number of these specially prepared elevating work boats ready to deploy immediately after storm passage to shoals and islands targeted or even pre storm patrolled by the Chinese within the normal EEZ of the Philippines or other contesting state. Once on scene the boats elevate, display the markings of the relevant nation's coast guard and signage such as “PRIMARY SEA COAST LIGHT NO--”. You now have a properly marked light house that is also armed.

The U.S. Coast Guard utilized standard marinized 50 cal. Machine guns piggy backed with infantry mortars very successfully from its 82 ft. patrol boats during the Vietnam conflict.*14 On the relatively small deck of an elevating work boat a variety of infantry anti-armor and normally shoulder mounted anti air weapons could prove formidable. When the Chinese return after the storm passes over their mainland they find an established and armed “light house”, every bit as functional as the civil engineered structures that they built over a long period of time and at great expense. They will of course surround the new “light house” with their armed coast guard vessels and make howls of protest and will attempt to block all resupply efforts. The sudden appearance of the new light houses would be the result of new combinations of technologies. Like any vessel of comparable size, the elevating work boats have serious water and fuel capacities, and the hull can store a lot of groceries. However, there is a clear need for greater sustainability. Enter the high tech end of this combination of emerging and disruptive technologies.


Some of the technologies needed to greatly expand the on scene duration of our “new light houses” are “high tech”, and available now, some are on the other side of what we call the NEWTONIAN / ECULIDIAN LINE (NWL). The NWL is an idea we coined to note the dividing line between certain areas of complexity theory where we are starting to evolve the mathematics such as Mandelbrot's Fractal Geometry, *15 and Chaos Theory where for the most part we have no calculus or geometries. Mandelbrot's Fractal Geometry, unknown before 1984, has been the basis for research into the Fractal Lens. The Fractal lens*17 could be the basis for very small but productive solar thermal electrical generators, and desalinization units which could easily fit on a standard elevating work boat. While the Fractal Lens driven electrical generator and desalinization kits would be the ideal, less efficient yet viable alternatives using inverse Fresnel lenses exists as practical designs and existing parts. We need not wait until the first “lab rat” fractal lens is manufactured and tested.

“Jacked up” in light house mode the elevating work boats don't consume much in the way of fuel. With virtually unlimited potable water and electricity the “new light houses” should be able to outlast any cabbage patrol of conventional vessels. That only leaves editable stores. Durable foods are already commercially available and the vessels come with ample below the main deck storage. But there is the emerging agri-technology of hydroponics and good old container gardening. Food stores could be supplemented with these technologies and even a standard “light house” configuration could consist of two elevating work boats one devoted solely to the emerging technologies of factory farming (as has already been proposed *18). Our point here is that emerging and disruptive technologies can be any mix of technologies above or below the NWL line. We can mix analog, digital, optical physics, any other novel technologies or crafts to get the overall military / law fare *16 effect we seek. In the example under examination we seek to turn the Chinese economic advantage in building maritime civil works based on their economy being stronger than their neighbors on its ear. The weak point of the Chinese economic advantage is that it relies on architectural technologies that require long construction periods, long distance maritime and expensive logistic support, their interim tactic while awaiting the funding and opportunity to “settle” all of the economically strategic shoals and islets has been the “cabbage patch fleets”. By using a mix of emerging and disruptive technologies the Philippines and other regional states in competition with China can establish “light houses”, aids to navigation stations, fishing support centers, literally overnight, right after Mother Nature removes the cabbage patch fleets with a typhoon. They can also establish such features anywhere that is unguarded by China.


In the case under examination the basic platform, the elevating work boat is immediately available. In the case of our foreign assistance type mission example, used U.S. work boats could prove sufficient and cost effective. A key element, the fractal lens driven solar thermal electrical generator exists in plans and drawings, but the key element the fractal lens exists in theory only. An actual fractal lens is still awaiting development and lab testing. However, immediately useful performance can be had using solar thermal electrical generators made with inverse Fresnel lenses and some photo-voltaic cells for lower electrical usages. Most any elevating work boat can be outfitted with a helo deck and aerial replenishment has been successful with the marines at Ayungin shoal. Perfection is not necessary to get the counter cabbage patch strategy started. Some of the emerging and disruptive technology on the far side of the NWL line may still be in the lab. But it is likely to emerge before the “good enough” combination of disruptive technological equipment has exhausted its service life. In defeating an enemy using a combination of naval power, and law fare for territorial expansion at their neighbors expense timing is important. Some science on the far side of the NWL line can't be rushed. Yet the desired disruption in aggressor plans can often be had and maintained long enough for the perfect solution to make it out of the lab and into application, by holding the line with a disruptive combination of technologies that are good enough, to cause the desired effect. In the words of Home Depot's advertising gurus the key is this; NEVER STOP IMPROVING.


Sponsored by Helios Ruehls, Inc.

Image Hibernia Networks (PD) 

American Admiralty Books Safety & Privacy Policies   EU VISITORS WARNING POSSIBLE COOKIES AHEAD

 There are over 320 transoceanic active submarine communications cables on our ocean floors as we write this. Most people think of submarine cables as something from the nineteenth century and believe that most transoceanic communications are carried by space satellite. However in fact the submarine cable system carries the bulk of transoceanic telecommunications and data traffic. In terms of the bulk of such communications traffic the satellite communications systems are mere adjuncts.  This is why we worry when submarine naval forces start to show interest in or start operating in close proximity to submarine cables.  (See: RUSSIAN SUBMARINES TOO NEAR SUBMERGED DATA AND COMMUNICATIONS CABLES). If a modern industrial nation is cut off from its international cable communications, international commerce slows to a crawl. Satellites can only handle a fraction of the traffic. At the start of the twentieth century transoceanic cables were the "moon shots" of the era and the man of hour, very much forgotten now, was one Cyrus West Fields  

CYRUS WEST FIELDS File:CyrusField4.jpg

Below are some links to videos dealing with the history and modern importance of the submarine cable


History of Transatlantic Cable: How to Connect the World Population 




The "dark" side of the moon, as photographed from NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. The Dragon's Chang’e-4 has landed inside the darker patch near the south pole.Image by NASA


 China recently landed an unmanned vehicle on the dark side of the moon. That side has been seen from orbit many times but this is the first roving vehicle known so far to touch down specifically to explore the "dark side". The "dark side" actually does get some sunlight but always faces away from earth. The mission may be useful from a geological viewpoint in that it may help illuminate the origins of the moon, and provide some hints as to how and where mineral mining might be profitable. The lander is named the Chang'e-4 for a moon goddess of Chinese mythology. The unmanned lander mission illustrates that China has advanced in space far enough to land vehicles on the moon. Space experts predict that the lunar explorer, a useful mission in its own right is a part and parcel of China's intended manned moon mission. If the Chinese land men on the moon any time soon theirs will be the first manned moon landing in roughly 50 years. 

 A Chinese moon landing is troublesome to contemplate. First, the Chinese performance in the South China Sea indicates a serious disregard for established international law. While the US was the first manned mission to land on the moon  we made it very clear that we made no territorial claims on the moon and that no single nation should make territorial claims anywhere in the solar system. The US went at its own expense but stated they went for "all mankind". The dragon doesn't work that way. Their claims in the South China Sea extend even into the established territorial sea of the Philippines and they have trespassed and even established artificial islands in the recognized exclusive economic zones of their neighbors. It should be cause for alarm that China may soon be landing men on any moons or planets within the solar system. 
 Some years ago we drew parallels between admiralty law and space exploration concerning outlying satellite territories. We think that as the only inhabited planet in the solar system we have an exclusive right to develop the other planets. But the United States sees this as a right of mankind, the planet Earth in a collective sense, not a new colonialism to be carried out in competition by the planet's nation states. Here is how we saw it a few years ago, and we still see it that way. And we still see the Dragon on the world oceans as a "claim jumper" and fear their attitude once they become accomplished space travelers: 

"The battle over the open versus the closed seas likely parallels any existing order in space. One of the first precepts of maritime international law is that the sea beyond territorial waters is a common highway open to all on "innocent passage".  Where territorial waters enclose or infringe on international straits and passages linking the seas, an international servitude exists, giving ships of all nations a right of innocent passage. Adjacent coastal states also have various exclusive rights by way of the Outer Continental Shelf Convention and the most recent "Law of the Sea Convention"to regulate certain fisheries and exploit bottom resources, especially mineral resources out to about 200 miles from shore varying a bit with circumstances. But beyond 12 miles from shore all ships have the right of innocent passage. Beyond the various Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) the sea surface, the water column, and the bottom and subsurface bottom are legally in the international "commons". This concept of "freedom of the seas" was not adopted automatically and is still fought by some nations today. Wars were fought over the issue and may be fought again. However the logic of freedom of the seas seems settled and irrefutable. The commerce between nations is carried on the seas. Without freedom of the seas the global economy is impossible to maintain. The vast seas which once separated cultures now unite them. It is likely that the same logic was long ago applied in space if older space faring cultures exists, especially if there are numbers of them. The likely first rule of space is that it is regarded as a common highway open to all.

 The Second likely rule of space is similar to the modern maritime concept of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)  and some ancient Polynesian concepts concerning uninhabited islands. Many , if not most of the islands of Polynesia are simply too small, too low lying, or lack sources of fresh water and were labeled by the European explorers as "uninhabited". But actually these out lying islands with no permanent human inhabitants were in fact owned, tended,and  were important food sources for Polynesian societies living sometimes several days sail away on larger fresh water endowed islands. The people of the larger permanently inhabited islands would visit the out lying islands to harvest coconuts, fish including tending saltwater ponds created as a form of aquaculture, and plant, tend, and harvest other crops. The truth was that the larger islands could not support their human populations without these additional crop lands and fishing grounds. One of the reasons we will push out into our solar system is that our ever expanding population on this planet needs the additional resources. So a probable second rule of any interstellar legal regime is that in any planetary system with intelligent life on any one planet, the inhabitants of that planet have the exclusive legal right to develop economically the out lying uninhabited planets. Apparently, if we give credence to astronaut reported UFO sightings, the right of innocent passage for all space faring civilizations remains. 

 A third probably sure bet is that in approaching anything like the port towns that Columbus saw on the Mayan coast, there will be a regular routine and procedures for formal entry with due notice to the authorities. If we ever find anything looking remotely like a space port we'd better hang well back and attempt to establish contact before attempting to enter or even draw close.. "

 This latest Chinese space mission illustrates even more space capability than that suggested by simply a planetary landing. Communications are difficult on the far side of the moon for mission controllers. Before landing the lunar probe the Chinese put a communications satellite in orbit around the moon to facilitate their communications with their probe. The Chinese are doing things now that the United States did in the 60s and 70s, but their achievements will seem far more impressive since we haven't stunned the world in space in decades. Many adults today weren't even born in the 60s and 70s. The Chinese reruns will look like something out of the future vice the past. The dragon is in space to stay and they will have no qualms about bringing the outer planets into the orbit of the "Middle Kingdom". We are living the Chinese curse; "May you live in interesting times".




(C) 2018 by Helios Ruehls, Inc.
It may have all started with a pigeons eye (Photo: Public Domain) 
As cutting edge optical physics researchers the Helios Ruehls crew does occasionally get involved in some areas of more general interest. One such area is called their "Yellow Lens Project". Most people would call the optical element examined "sun glasses", but their actual focus is on low light level vision enhancement, which is a far cry, by the way, from "night vision". Interest in the effects of yellow tinted lenses has been around a long time. At one point the Coast Guard noticed that certain birds appear to have yellow irises such as the pigeon depicted above. A few decades ago the U.S. Coast Guard's  aviation branch ran tests involving the performance of caged pigeons in helicopters at detecting "international orange" the official color of personal flotation devices ("life preservers", "life jackets"). The idea behind the tests was to compare the performance of the caged pigeons against the typical performance of the human crewmen serving as look outs . As far as the tests went the findings were rather positive in favor of the birds. 

 However, newer search and detection technologies ,including some non optical  technologies, became available and funding for the bird vision project dried up. As time went by certain innovations in aircraft cockpit windscreen design and instrumentation made the use of yellow tinted, polarized lenses dangerous in certain aircraft cockpits and with certain flight instruments. Basically many aircraft wind screens are polarized today as are the covers for certain flight deck instruments. Looking out through such windscreens or at such encased instruments while wearing polarized lenses creates a double effect that often results in being unable to see critical flight instruments or making the view out the polarized aircraft wind screen unreliable. The FAA regulations now virtually ban the use of polarized lenses and yellow tinted polarized lenses in particular from aircraft cockpits generally. Some have interpreted the regulation to bar yellow lenses regardless of polarization from the cockpit generally. Yet our research indicates that many aviators who fly older or simpler air craft might benefit from such eye wear under a variety of specific circumstances.  We have learned that many pilots of simple or older aircraft swear by the polarized yellow lens eye wear and some commercial pilots swear by un-polarized yellow lens eye wear even in the cockpits where the polarized version is definitely banned. 

 Thus based on our initial research we believe that a somewhat over generalized ban by the FAA has had a retarding effect on yellow lens research. We don't disagree with the FAA's ban on the use of polarized lens generally or yellow tinted polarized lenses in particular under a wide variety of circumstances, but think such lenses could be highly beneficial under certain circumstances. Those circumstances might include use in small planes without polarized windscreens in low light level situations such as nearing sunset or just after sunrise, or rainy conditions. Unpolarized light yellow tinted lenses might be of benefit to some pilots in similar ambient light conditions even in cockpits with polarized wind screens and instrument panels.  We believe that interpretations of the FAA ban as general and complete inhibit the needed research to create reliable guides on the use of such eye wear in aviation.

 Many shooters have found yellow lens eye wear to be vision enhanceive and the lens color is popular in shooter safety glasses. But too many manufacturers went overboard in their advertising and market yellow tinted eye wear as "night vision" eye wear or otherwise imply that the lenses enhance vision "at night". The Federal Trade Commission picked up on this and rightly labeled such advertising as "false". Unfortunately, we found the Federal Trade Commission was as unspecific and over generalized in their warnings as the manufacturers and distributors of the eye wear were in their "night" related claims of benefits. The net result is that the large body of evidence for the benefits of yellow tinted lenses in certain low light level applications has been buried under a combination of advertising and regulatory agency over statements. Below we endeavor to outline what we have been able to determine from applying simply good forensic investigative practice to a large body of authoritative literature and a small amount of original research conducted on our own. 

The truth,as indicated by our review of authoritative
 literature and interviews with actual users, is that most
 people could benefit from the use of yellow tinted 
 lenses  in lower ambient light levels on cloudy  rainy 
days, and first and last light. If anything can help "at 
night"  is the controversy that brought Helios
 Ruehls  into the study of existing authoritative 
literature , some physical testing of our own, and 
some interviews with users. Owning a  great pair of 
sunglasses is important for most people who spend 
any length of time outdoors routinely. UV rays are 
the number one cause of cataracts, macular, 
degeneration, and skin cancer around the eyes.
Ask any sailor,soldier, police officer, fireman, or 
outdoors-man, and they'll tell you how critical it is for 
them to have a durable pair of glare-resistant
sunglasses...and for them, not just any pair of
 sunglasses will do. Observe the marketing appeal from
 the makers of the Apache 400 "military" style 
sunglasses below.
"They were throwing flash bangs at us to disorient us, but thank god we had the new standard issue Apache 400 sunglasses. We were able to see exactly where we were going and where the enemy was. It's why I'm still here today."

Austin Grant, Special Ops

Thankfully, recent military advances in lens technology have taken sunglasses to a new level. Better UV protection and glare resistance in the form of polarized and other technologies have led to sunglasses that are many times better than your everyday sunglasses of yesteryear. But before you run out and buy a new pair, we think you need to hear about the research of Helios Ruehls, Inc. into tinted eye wear lens technology.  

 You also need to know about tinted lenses generally. The military type eye wear sell for between a reported $240 per pair to an occasional $79 or so on sale. Other yellow to amber tinted lenses make similar claims and are advertised on TV for prices like 19.95 . Based on their advertising, the "military like lenses" appear to be available in a shades of yellow, yellow /amber tint and a blue tint. We do not sell eye wear or draw any commission on any sales. We mentioned one vendor in this post simply to give you more information and an example of a non prescription/ non custom made product. WE ALSO DON'T RECOMMEND NOR DISPARAGE ANY OF THE "SUNGLASSES" OR TINTED LENSES THAT ARE PRESENTLY ON THE MARKET. What we are critical of is the apparent misalignment of certain marketing copy with the scientific facts relative to such lenses and the resulting apparent regulatory over kill relative to yellow tinted lenses. 

 Helios Ruehls, Inc. is still studying tinted lenses mostly from a marine navigation and aviation utility angle. We have distributed to a very limited group our initial preliminary report on usage in driving and to a lesser extent marine navigation. We are wrapping up our study of the usage of yellow tinted lenses in aviation and the related regulation. We believe the findings found there are far more reliable than the advertising copy of any tinted eye wear distributors.

 Two observations triggered the study of tinted lens performance by Helios Ruehls, Inc. First there was an observable growing popularity in the use of yellow tinted lenses, and a number of manufacturers / distributors were selling such as "night driving glasses". This triggered a complaint by the Federal Trade Commission of "misleading advertising". Second there were glowing reports on the effectiveness of yellow tinted lenses as enhancive of vision in low light levels. The initial research by Helios Ruehls revealed the following that in part explain the apparent contradictions:

1. "Night is a term describing part of the daily earth rotational cycle. It is not a description of any particular ambient light level."The ambient light levels that may be found during the time frame of "night" include brightly lighted ball parks and parking lots, streets with ordinary street lighting, conditions created by the various phases of the moon and available starlight away from urban light sources, to the serious "pitch darkness" of a densely cloudy, moonless night at sea. Helios Ruehls, Inc. found that the Federal Board of Trade's observations about advertising yellow tinted lenses as "night driving glasses" or anything similar indicating that such lenses had any sort of "night vision" quality amounts to a misleading claim is thoroughly correct. 

 However, Helios Ruehls research also confirmed that varying considerably with the individual user's personal vision physical characteristics, yellow tinted lenses could be a significant aid in visual perception under a wide variety of relatively low ambient light conditions."Night" being a time frame in which a wide variety of ambient light conditions occur, any total formal ban or public avoidance of the use of yellow or amber tinted lenses during the time frame of "night" could be counter productive under a variety of ambient light conditions. 

2. Helios Ruehls, Inc. found that the nearly uniform positive reports coming from certain US Air Force populations were  indicative of two facts: (1) Yellow tinted lenses more probably than not, do provide some visual perception benefit under some circumstances.(2) The reporting Air Force Population mentioned in the authoritative literature reviewed more probably than not represented an unusually uniform population characterized by a relatively narrow and young age band, and an unusually uniform proportion of the population with 20/20 uncorrected vision.

 Returning for a moment to the Apache 400 models. These may be ordered in both an apparent (based on advertising illustrations) yellow/amber tint and a blue tint. Helios Ruehls, in our own experiments, found that the  lighter the yellow tint , the wider variety of low ambient light levels the lens produced vision enhancive effects in. Conversely, the lighter the yellow tint the less benefit that could be derived in relatively bright sunlight. A yellow / amber tint or amber / yellow would fail as low light enhancive in lowering light conditions far sooner than a light yellow tint. However, the more amber the tint, the more utility in bright light. In fact amber and rose tints are often perceived as "color perception enhancive" by many reporting users. Moreover their red elements tend to enhance contrast and enhance depth perception. Amber to brown lenses are good in partly cloudy to sunny conditions. We have not tested the Apache 400 lenses and do not know if their apparent lighter amber tint extends their range of usefulness into lower light levels than conventional amber to brown lenses. 

 Blue tinted lenses, which the Apache 400 also comes in enhance contours, and colors generally and are considered vision enhancive in misty, foggy or snowy conditions. Our research however was focused on low light level visual enhancement. We could not recommend the Apache 400 eye wear specifically for that purpose. We could not tell from the advertising linked to, whether or not the Apache 400 models could be ordered with distance or astigmatism corrections. 

 In fact in our search to build and test low light level vision enhancive eye wear we did not find a single mass market product that met all of our criteria, which was based on anticipated military needs as follows:

1. To extend the period of usefulness in low light levels the yellow tint should be as light as possible. 

2. The yellow tinted lenses should be polarized, or subjected to a similar process which both sharpened their glare reduction in low light and made them more useful when brighter conditions or "flash" were encountered such as on coming automotive head lights.

3.The yellow tinted lenses should be impact and shatter resistant to near safety glasses standards, yet lightweight. 

4. The yellow tinted polarized lenses should be able to be ground to take most common distance vision and astigmatic corrections, as outside of the military aviation community 20/20 uncorrected vision is not a strict requirement.  

 When we sought to have glasses made to these specifications in one market (New Orleans) we found that only a small minority of optical dispensing shops, both national chains and local or regional , could produce a pair meeting all of our specifications. The eye wear retailers who could produce our "test glasses" were affiliated with a single international lens manufacturer.  Our cost for the lenses alone were in excess of $300. 

 By contrast grey tinted lenses, polarized, impact resistant, and distant/ astigmatic corrected were commonly available at a wide variety of optical retailers. Grey tints, especially light grey are the best "all purpose" tints for a variety of light levels including cloudy and rainy days. But light yellow, corrected and polarized appears the best for the widest variety of low light conditions. Basically a consumer can walk into most optical retailers and order their correction as "grey tinted sunglasses" and come out with a very effective pair of "sun glasses" , depending on correction, thinness of the lens desired, impact resistance specified, frames etc for under $150 to over $300. Unless you have 20/20 uncorrected these will serve you better than the $79 to $240 "military" style "sunglasses". We think if you can benefit from the mass produced higher quality uncorrected lenses in the choice between yellow /amber and blue you will get more usage out of the blue. But the color enhancement, and contrast of those "military" style yellow amber red combination lenses when slipped over a pair of naturally seeing 20/20 human eyes is truly awesome.  

 We think the science is probably settled on the various tinted lenses but not very well understood by the marketing departments of much of the retail segment. Everything from light yellow to dark brown is generally marketed under the heading of "sun glasses", a few retailers are trying to market light yellow lenses as "night driving glasses"and running afoul of the Board of Trade. The FAA clearly discourages the use of yellow lens eye wear and this is especially appropriate in the case of polarized cockpit wind screens and instrument covers. There is no getting around that any tint once conditions are dark enough obstructs visual perception. The evidence is that the point of no gain varies widely among individuals. We do not agree with any general admonition that light yellow lenses, especially polarized and corrected would not be of visual perception assistance in "night driving" but hold that the effect varies with the level of ambient light and the vision of the individual user. The least controversial advertising claims come from the sale of yellow lenses to shooting sports enthusiasts . Configured as shooting safety glasses if the lenses make the grade for impact resistance standards no one seems to dispute the claims of vision enhancement made by shooters who favor the lenses. 

If you are a "Sunglasses" or "Night Driving Glasses" manufacturer, retailer, lens producer, or optical dispenser and would like to align your product descriptions, advertising, etc. with the upcoming copyrighted detailed research report by Helios Ruehls, or commission further investigation write to:

Helios Ruehls, Inc.
951 Marina Drive
Slidell, LA 70452  

RE: Yellow Lens Project, Initial Report

Please include your phone and E mail contact information.

NAMAZU'S HELIOS RUEHLS SCIENTIFIC REPORT NO.1:                                             GOMs  


Greetings Bipeds! 
 As some of you may have noted over the past few months the American Admiralty Books Blog has had some pains. First the primary and automatic site advertising program was pulled without explanation. Then the home state of our corporation elected a democrat for governor who immediately set out to tax the Internet. Within days of that election Amazon, for which we were a commissioned portal, eliminated contracts with all portals in our home state. This site once stripped of all revenues was reduced to a volunteer effort by certain interested members of the American Admiralty Information System network. I have continued to write for the site but at a much lower level of effort than previously. Once again since going out of the demigod business I had to seek employment and found such with a company known as Helios Ruehls, Inc. Helios Ruehls, Inc. is a Louisiana based scientific research and development firm that specializes in projects "above the Newtonian / Euclidean Line", projects particularly in optical physics, and the electromagnetic spectrum involving the physics and math associated with "Complexity Theory". My previous publications on such subjects in these pages helped me secure the position. So being once again gainfully employed, I am eating with regularity again and presented with some new opportunities.

 Helios Ruehls, Inc. has asked me as part of my new duties to report via these pages on scientific subjects that the company has an interest in, especially subjects that have a likely application or impact on technologies in the maritime sector. American Admiralty Books seems a perfect venue for such missives having a large maritime orientated audience. In any event this assignment will bring me back into the pages of the American Admiralty Books Blog more often. Writers always like to get paid gigs. Below is my HELIOS RUEHLS SCIENCE REPORT NO.1  on Graphene-oxide membranes (GOMs). "GOMs are going to have a big impact on shipboard fresh water making and desalinization , and something of a temporary impeding effect of the Helios Ruehls Fractal Lens Project at least in terms of grant fund competition. . 


 New research indicates that the substance known as "graphene"can filter common salts from water indicating a probability of applications in desalination technology. Helios Rueh;'s Fractal Lens project offers potential savings in desalinization processes which currently require great amounts of heat, The fractal lens ,once developed, would be a cheap heat producer. By contrast graphene-oxide "membranes" appear to be able to produce fresh water from sea water without the need for heat. There should be room for both technologies in the near term in the desalinization industry. Existing large desalinization plants represent big investments. Fractal lens heat production would not require replacement of the greater part of most existing plants, just substitution of the heat generating element with the fractal lens heat systems which produce enormous BTUs of heat at no cost for fuel. By contrast the findings that graphene -oxide membranes can eliminate salts from water coming out of the University of Manchester labs and recently published in the scientific journal NATURE NANOTECHNOLOGY are simply lab test findings and not a developed technology.

  While the Fractal lens is as yet to appear in physical form when it does it will be a "plug and play" technology that enhances existing industrial technologies as a retrofitted device providing unprecedented fuel savings. Graphene-oxide membranes by contrast in the desalinization field require the development of a corresponding technology for application of the theoretical benefit. Assuming that such a technology is eventually developed that can produce fresh water in municipality water supply consumption quantities we see a probable two step evolution in desalinization. Assuming that the Fractal lens emerges in a timely manner from the lab we see existing and planned municipal water supply level plants adopting fractal lens technology, lowering operating costs and prolonging the operating life of the plant. 

 Assuming that graphene -oxide membrane water filtration technology is developed within the next twenty years to a point where it has utility in municipal water supply sized operations it could become the new standard of the industry for plants designed and planned sometime after 2037. In the maritime sector however, graphene-oxide membrane technology could bring "water making" capability to an entire range of working vessels presently thought too small for "water making". Below the 2,000 to 5,000 gross registered ton level in shipping, ships generally have only the fresh water they can carry in their potable water tanks, and when it's gone , it's gone. By contrast many large war ships and passenger cruise vessels have a limited capacity to produce fresh water. It is highly fuel consumptive but can supplement tanked supplies and make a big difference to "on scene endurance" for war ships and usually eliminate emergency port calls for water, or the implementation of highly unpopular with paying passengers, water conservation measures. If graphene -oxide membrane based "water making " technology can spread significant "water making " capability into the work boat fleet  it could be a significant improvement in "on scene endurance" for tugs on stand by duty , and the stand by offshore service vessels in the offshore oil industry among others. It could also be a safety feature for such vessels working in Third World offshore oil fields off the coasts of nations with unreliable maritime potable water supplies. 

 In short the latest news on graphene-oxide technology coming out of the University of Manchester does not alarm us in terms of any immediate competition for the fractal lens in the desalinization market, but it does announce another competitor for research grant funding for funds related to desalinization. We are on a parallel development path with these very different products. What has been recently reported about GOMS is literally a breakthrough. Graphene -oxide membranes developed at the National Graphene Institute have demonstrated their potential for filtering out small nanoparticles, organic molecules, and large salts. However prior to these recent announcements GOMs couldn't be used for sieving out common salts as needed in desalinization technologies. Prior research at Manchester indicated that if immersed in water graphene-oxide membranes tend to become swollen and pass through smaller salts. Now Manchester reports that they have learned how to control the pore size in the membrane so as to sieve out the common smaller salts of salty water and make it safe for human consumption. According to Manchester's Dr. Rahul Raveendran Nair"

 "Realization of scalable membranes with uniform pore size down to atomic scale is a significant step forward and will open new possibilities for improving the efficiency of desalinization technology"

 Desalinization technology seems poised to become a growth industry in that the UN reports that by 2025 14% of the World's population will encounter water scarcity. The graphene-oxide membrane technologies likely to emerge early on will probably be best suited for smaller scale water production being more of a filtering process than 'desalinization" as it has become traditionally understood in recent decades. Early on we think the graphene -oxide membrane technology will have a niche market  in land based desalinization. But we also anticipate that it could have a second early niche market in ship board "water making" especially aboard working vessels previously thought too small to support that capacity. Here in we find the opportunities for Helios Ruehls. We have unique capabilities to assist the graphene-oxide membrane developers in applying this technology to the work boat industry. This could be a unique contract research opportunity at some future point. In addition even if we never sell a research contract related to GOMs we will be tracking the progress of GOMs as a natural function of keeping tabs on the competitors for desalinization related research grants. As industry leaders emerge GOMS may be an interesting investment . In our next installment we will look at the graphene "industry" from an investors view point.

For Helios Ruehls, Inc.
Namazu, Great Catfish


Grettings Bipeds!
 In our first science report for Helios Ruehls, Inc. we told you about GOMs (Graphene-Oxide Membranes), a little of what they are capable of and how they may affect our own seemingly never ending search for research grant money for the Fractal Lens. One thing we've learned here at Helios Ruehls is that the progress of science is relentless, but irregular and profoundly affected by politics and economics. Another thing that we have learned is that nearly every scientific investigation that we make begins with an examination of the "state of the art". The examination of the "state of the art" usually leads to discoveries concerning the state of the industry, its establishment companies, rising stars, and transformational developments. As a corporation we can't lead the charge in every field of high tech endeavor, but we've learned that we can invest in any of them.  We're going to pass on to you some information about GOMs that we didn't pass in Report No.1. Some readers might act on this information as if it were investment information. Before you do that remember what you paid for this information (nothing) and realize that it may be worth what you paid for it. Before investing in anything the prudent investor always researches the fundamentals of any company targeted for investment. What we pass on here doesn't touch on such fundamentals such as the annual revenues, level of capitalization, corporate debt, or management's credentials. Consider this, if you consider it at all as investment information, as merely a primer on GOMS.

 Graphene is seen as a transformational material, a veritable "wonder material". Speaking like our lab guys , Graphene is one of the simplest of allotropes of carbon. So it's not supernatural and has been around for a while, but as scientists have been examining it of late it appears to exhibit properties and apparent capabilities that are truly amazing. The stuff is pretty thin, in fact only one atom thick, its like a two dimensional substance and has a mass as close to zero as we have ever seen so far. Yet, and here it comes for our own physicists lab guys, it has an electrical conductivity six orders of magnitude higher than copper, is flexible, and impermeable to gas even after flexing. Its potential usages are mind boggling. Yet, there doesn't appear yet to be an obviously visible mass market application, at least not until the University of Manchester announced that they had demonstrated that graphene-oxide membranes could convert salt water into potable water. We, (the Helios Ruehl's wizards and your humble catfish) immediately observed the potential use for such membranes (called "GOMs") in desalinization, particularly, and most probably soonest in small scale operations such as smaller marine vessel "water making".

 In this report we'll look at graphene's potential in industry and its probable place in competition with other technologies known and emerging. In our last report we viewed it relative to the desalinization and maritime "water making" industries. We examined it as a potential competitor with our own struggling fractal lens technological development and as a competitor for research grant funding in the desalinization field.

  The discovery of graphene and indeed graphene -oxide membranes is amazingly simple. If only fractal lenses could be produced with such simplicity.  Basically it happened like this. University of Manchester professors Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov managed to peel flakes of carbon just a single atom in thickness from graphite in 2004. Their method was decidedly low tech, they peeled up pencil scratchings with scotch tape. The discovery of the potential industrial importance of such thin layers of graphite became apparent a few years later when they proved that these thin layers could conduct electricity with diligence and fervor, winning the two scientists the 2010 Nobel Prize for Physics.

About six months later the two researchers experienced our wildest dream at Helios Ruehls, the perverbial researcdh cash avalanche . It started when the EU invested about a billion Euros in graphene research, followed by MIT opening a center for Graphene research. The cash and the fun have just kept rolling in, Geim and Novoselov were even knighted by Queen Elizabeth , one of your Catfish Reporter's favorite people. Today Graphene, the Graphene -Oxide Membrane (GOM) and the carbon nanotube ( more or less a graphene roll) are hot topics of physics research and go to the head of the line for research bucks. The head of the line is a place that we at Helios Ruehls have yet to occupy, but we never stop trying.

 One of our basic hopes for future fractal lens applications is also our earliest foray into the realm of the fractal lens, energy production. We think the chief benefit of our still developing "product" is its ability to maximize solar thermal electrical production , already far more efficient than the photo voltaic process which converts sunlight directly into electricity, and our "product" can be interfaced with existing and high cost electrical generation and distribution systems, basically eliminating traditional fuels or even nuclear generated electrical power. However , while we first learned of GOMS and graphene developments generally in relation to desalinization this stuff's capacity for electrical transmission points to interest in the technology for novel energy solutions.

 Over in one of our favorite states, Texas, at Rice University (aka Sam Houston Institute of Technology, try not to think about the initials) researchers came up with a graphene-doped cathode that can be used to produce dye -sensitized solar cells.  The photo-voltaic solar cell industry so loved by the leftist , tree hugging grant administrators of the DOE under the Obama administration have been seeking such a cell for 20 years. All of their prototypes to date have never reached the efficiency of the silicon-based cells, which we have argued for years are basically too inefficient to ever produce power on a municipal electrical grid scale. These cheap semi transparent, more efficient dye sensitized cells can be fabricated anywhere and probably can work indoors and in other diffused sunlight  areas, some predict in ambient light levels bordering on semi darkness.  Well your reporting Catfish in't so sure of that rosy of a future for these super slick electrical conductors, but clearly they are going to have a big appeal on the research grant circuits that provide R&D funding for alternative power generation.

  Graphene appears to have a potential for use in lithium batteries for your smart phone and other devices. Supposedly, at least according to some R& D grant applications graphene has a potential to increase the overall energy density of such batteries. The  lithium-sulfur battery has a greater capacity than a lithium -ion battery. But the ion model is common today because the sulfur model has a much shorter life cycle because sulfur is very soluble. .Researchers are currently experimenting with ways to use graphene  to inhibit the solubility of sulfur specifically in order to improve the performance of the sulfur based batteries at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

 Despite all of that well funded research the battery industry is well aware that lithium is not the ideal battery material. Secondary sources report that some researchers are working with aluminum anodes and graphene foam electrodes to make batteries. So far, if we believe sources, perhaps two levels above rumor mill status the resulting batteries so far have been an improvement in electrical output or extended battery service life but were flexible and considered quite safe. According to secondary sources, lab guys said they could drill a hole in these batteries with no dangerous effect. By contrast it only takes a short puncture to explode a standard cell phone battery. Here at Helios Ruehls we know the market for "ruggedized gear", especially the military market. I guess we'll have to welcome graphene into the R& D grant competition at DARPA and the DOD. And, here we thought our main competition in the defense market were the older, more established DC beltway bandits.

 Does the interest in graphene  based technologies know no bounds? Kia Motors of South Korea with major plants in Alabama applied for a U.S. patent in 2011 for a graphene based fuel cell. It is thought this may be a first step towards an efficient hydrogen burning automotive engine.

 This stuff may eventually even be in your clothing, while your clothing may soon incorporate "wearable technology".   Graphene has tweaked the interest of textile researchers due to its flexibility, tensile strength, and electrical conductivity. The stuff is getting into fabrics.It is reported that researchers at the University of Exeter in Great Britain have already developed a method for coating textile fibers with graphene, creating a transparent and wearable material for future "Wearable technologies". Down under Aussie R& D hounds have created graphene oxide yarns. But conductivity within textiles isn't the only interest in graphene by the textile industry.  It seems that carbon nanotubes are a toughening agent for polymer composites. Think about that in terms of anti ballistic body armor, especially the concealable type.

 Lubricants, this stuff may be a super lubricant!  Graphene  not only exhibits near super-conductivity but also near superlubricity when mixed with other substances. When graphene contacts diamond particles and carbon fiber things get complex and very slippery.  Graphene literally rolls around diamond particles to form microscopic ball bearing like structures that in groups are called nanoscrolls. And if that wasn't enough graphene appears to be useful in non lubricating coatings. Vanderbilt University has created in the lab a graphene -oxide film that causes water to bead and run off, applied to an automotive wind shield, might we see a permanent "Rain -X" type coating? Think of the uses in water repellent clothing which may already have graphene coated fibers to support your wearable IT and Electronic communications devices. Eye wear and construction applications might include self cleaning glass.

 Here at Helios Ruehls we've been seeking out the leaders in nano technology for some months especially up and coming manufacturers of NEMS and MEMS, but it appears there may be a day coming when graphene will be introduced into NEMS AND MEMS technology, perhaps this is an indicator of who the big winners in the NEMS and MEMS races will be, those companies that already show evidence of anticipating the introduction of graphene into their processes. One recent experiment illustrated not only graphene's or graphene -oxide's utility in nano electrical and micro electrical operations but illustrates graphene's apparent capacity as a producer of heat and light, the thing we're after with the fractal lens. Recently secondary sources report that researchers in a so far unnamed laboratory created a "nano sun" with a graphene conductor. When a 2 to 3 volt charge was applied to a layer of graphene the spark rose in temperature to 2,500 degrees celsius or about half the surface temperature of the sun. While it is thought that graphene emits only half of its heat energy in light, the experiment produced visible light. One arleady discussed application might be a micro cutting torch that can perform on a molecular level. Now consider that one application that we envision for micro fractal lens technology is an improved molecular tweezers. The molecular tool box is starting to appear on the visible horizon.

 And the potential uses just keep coming. Graphene appears to be a boon in the realm of data transmission and sensors. For example there are now at least at the lab stage new filters in the terahertz spectrum, expected to play a part in the next generation of wireless communications. Terahertz waves are in the middle of the electromagnetic spectrum in an area previously under utilized in electronic communications. The terahertz wave lengths appear able to carry data thousands of time faster than present day wireless technology. Superstar material graphene has been demonstrated to be a super filter and effective linear polarizer for devices needed to communicate in the terahertz range such as modulators, detectors and metamaterials.

 Not only does graphene filter electromagnetic waves, but it can act as an extremely sensitive bio sensor. The instant any molecule binds with it, the electrical conductivity of the graphene drops. Indeed if anything, right now the stuff is judged as too sensitive for biological sensing, but the HZB Institute for Photovoltaics has been at  work for some time on improving its selectivity so it can be used to detect traces of organic molecules.

 Really, I could go no forever describing the ever expanding potential applications for this seemingly magic material. Out on the far edge there is some discussion in the robotics science community of using graphene/ graphene oxide membranes as a sensitive skin for humanoid style robots, but closer to reality touch sensitivity can immediately improve manufacturing process robots and some one is working on that. At Exeter University in Great Britain lab wonks are already using a new chemical vapor deposition (CVD) machine from the UK graphene company MOORFIELD to create a transparent, flexible touch sensor. This could be the first practical work on sensitive "robot skin".   


 Well first it serves as an example of how "Transformational Technologies" which is what Helios Ruehls is all about differ in impact and quality from each other. Our present leading projects are focused on the fractal lens, industrial sized and projection lantern size. We see in the industrial size applications what could be "transformational" in the realm of electrical production eliminating the use of a lot of dirty forms of fuel. But the industrial sized fractal lens is also transitional in that it would facilitate the change over from dirty fuels while still using the existing electrical generation and transmission grid. In the realm of desalinization solar thermal heat sources such as the fractal lens are starting to look like early transformational and transitional in that they will revolutionize municipal water supply sized desalinization projects while preserving most of the existing technology beyond the heat source. The same is true for fractal lens applications in mineral refining operations, new energy / heat source  but down stream technology is preserved. Transitional technologies tend to improve older technological processes and may be transformational in that they eliminate at least one component part of an industrial process. We still are suffering from R& D funding hunger on the Fractal lens projects. Since we have not yet produced the testable "lab rat lens" we haven't looked at applications much beyond electrical production, desalinization, and mineral refinement yet. The Fractal lens may yet prove fully transformative in terms of as yet unexplored applications such as heat and particle beam weapons. The applications of the micro fractal lens may be more transformative in terms of applications in artificial and augmented reality. At present using the fractal lens projects as examples we are operating in our corporate infancy on the low end of the transformational technology spectrum. Our most expensive and complex projects are "transitional transformative".
By contrast, graphene development changes things across a host of fields and renders many previous technologies obsolete. The introduction of various fully developed graphene applications will literally close down some older micro electronic industries that fail to adapt. 
The picture of the industrialized world that emerges after the introduction of the fractal lens is cleaner, safer, and more productive but not unrecognizable from the present. The post fully developed graphene technology world of graphene enhanced NEMS, MEMS, etc. is unrecognizable from the present word. The post mature graphene based and enhanced technologies world will seem magical to those raised in the eras of analog and electronic and digital technologies.  Graphene development is truly TRANSFORMATIVE TECHNOLOGY.

 We don't break into anything. We don't swim against the incoming tide.We Surf! As we conduct our own research we learn every day about parallel developments in transformative technologies. Yes these are competitors for R& D grants, but the companies leading the charge into transformative technologies are not our competitors, if anything they are our potential customers for intellectual property that we develop and for contract research services. Remember after the close of Helios Ruehls LLC we decided to avoid manufacturing anything. We do R&D. We do R&D in partnership with our "sweat equity" stock holders in university physics departments. Our "overhead" between funded or contracted projects is lower than the sea floor. Our present rate of capital accumulation is too low to finance speculative projects of any size , so in keeping with the surfing philosophy we reserve part of every investment dollar in investing in the emerging transformational technology leaders. This way we share in their prosperity and stay in touch with what is going on in their labs, which is important to our contract research sales efforts. The bottom line is that as surfers we have an interest in the over all progress and prosperity of the transformational technology wave. We have no reason to keep what we know that might be of intelligence value to other investors secret. In terms of graphene we are watching a number of companies:

Graphene is becoming well known for all of its potential uses.  However, in fact there has yet to be a commercial breakthrough application to hit the market We are tracking the different research endeavors that we can uncover and monitoring the patent office for graphene related products. We expect niche leaders to appear soon. Some may be large established firms, the big profits will be in the newer emerging leaders. There will of course be risk in these new leaders. No matter what type of wiz bang technology a company is working in, no company makes a profit without having good fundamentals like overhead control, and good price margins, and farsighted management. None of the companies discussed below should be considered as investment recommendations. But all rate watching. Graphene is a carbon allotrope, it is basically cheap and available everywhere. There is no geographic advantage related to location that we can observe as yet. If something of a "graphene valley of interactive companies ever surfaces that might change, but for now graphene product developers are all over the map. Early bets may be best relative to early patent holders but as previously mentioned that is no guarantee of success. At the moment Chinese and South Korean companies hold about 43% of the graphene related patents. U.S. companies hoild about 23% of the patents and the rest are spread across the planet with a minor concentration in the the UK. The following companies in the graphene game are in play and some available  on the various stock exchanges: 

Apple (NASDAQ: AAPL) — Has a patent application to incorporate graphene into some of its existing MAC products. 

IBM (NYSE: IBM) — Reportedly has invested $3 billion in system involving graphene enhanced carbon nanotubes , is reportedly working on graphene based applications in quantum computing, has good fundamentals and certainly knows its way to the patent office.  

Lockheed Martin (NYSE: LMT): This well known aerospace engineering and military contractor acquired a patent for graphene-based water filters in 2013. The company plans to have a prototype out soon which may prove an improvement over grandulated charcoal for filtering mercury out of water. 

Sandisk (NASDAQ: SNDK): This South Koran manufacturer of flash memory devices owns 36 patents for graphene applications including nanometer graphene RAM

Foxconn Electronics (OTCMKTS: HNHPF) : An I phone manufacturer with 35 graphene applications patents.

Graphene Corporation aka Elcora Resources (TSX V: ERA): A Canadian company making graphene and expanding capacity.

We don't know much about  Biogenic Reagents , but we have read that they are working on producing graphene from a wood feedstock vice coal. The wood version appears to have a 50% higher absorption capability indicating that the Biogenic Reagents process may become the preferred graphene source for filtration applications.

Watch for sales of patents by Roy McAlister president of the American Hydrogen Association, a non profit dedicated to hydrogen fuel cell technology. He is one of the largest patent holders for graphene related designs in America. It is anticipated that most of his patents will further hydrogen fuel cell technology, but sales might indicate that other have found additional uses for some of his patents. There is a company called Garmor for which we have no additional information at the moment. Gamor manufacturers and distributes a high volume graphene oxide. The machine is sold to other companies manufacturing graphene -oxide applications, supposedly the only by product of the process is water.

 That my biped friends is about all that we know about developments in the world of graphene related products. We are still looking for the graphene related stocks that we will put in our investment portfolio. When we know more, so shortly will you. Look for more exclusive Helios Ruehls , Inc science and technology reports here in the pages of  American Admiralty Books in the near future.


 Crystalline Image by Malize Ong 
 The "Bias Field" is a new fundamental discovery derived from re-examination of data from a NASA experiment of  twenty years ago.  This new theory alters our present understanding of how metals solidify and probably will eventually alter and improve process in metals smelting and processing and lead to new developments in materials science. It is believed that this new theory will ultimately lead to improvements in the control of casting and the welding processes. It has been delivered on time to be incorporated in near future metallic 3-D printing manufacturing processes. In the natural sciences realm the theory explains how snow flakes and many mineral patterns form in nature,

 Martin Glicksman, a research professor of materials science who occupies the Allen Henry Chair At the Florida Institute of Technology began re-examining data from a twenty year old NASA experiment and in conjunction with Kumar Ankit of the School of Matter, Transport, and Energy at Arizona State University made an important discovery within the old data. Basically they discovered evidence of an energy field that affects all crystallizing substances. Glicksman named the field "THE BIAS FIELD" which Glicksman and Ankit believe is the primary way that nature guides the formation of complex patterns in materials that crystallize. The "bias field" is sort of the programming code that guides cellular and branching dendritic micro-structures  that form during the solidification process of most metals and alloys. This is big news in the world of metallurgy and materials science generally and will likely lead to new processes, refinements of old processes, and all sorts of new materials.

 While examining the 20 year old data from a NASA materials in formation in micro gravity experiment something new was observed. In the last phases of melting needle-like crystals were observed to rapidly change to sphere shapes. This unexpected shape change was observed for the first time while watching particles melting in microgravity. Not a bad piece of evidence to be offered in support of future low earth orbit scientific experimental missions. This one we expect will benefit the economy immensely a few years from now in the very basic materials industry, and that from a 20 year old experiment that we are still learning from. Prior to this re-examination of old data many metallurgists and other physicists believed that what causes pattern formation in crystallizing materials is random noise. Any sound vibration or disturbances under the "sound induced theory" would act upon a solidifying material. However, contrary to the previously widely accepted "sound theory" Glicksman and Ankit found a subtle internal energy source at work. This is the force they labeled the "Bias Field". It is this "Bias Field" that Glicksman and Ankit believe modulates the speed of the solid /liquid interface on micro scales and guides the formation of complex structures. Theoretical research and advanced computer simulations appear to confirm these observations and resulting theory. 

 Glicksman expressed gratitude for the opportunity to look for "Bias Field" in micro gravity thanks to the existence of the twenty year old NASA study. Prior authoritative literature had indicated that such a field would be most likely observable in a micro gravity environment. Glicksman noted that thanks to research made possible by the old NASA experiment ; "Now we have a sound thermodynamic theory and proof to back that idea up. Glicksman and Ankit recently published their findings on the bias field in the journal METALS (Martin Glicksman et al, Detection of Capilary-Mediated Energy Fields On A Grain Boundary Groove-Liquid Interface Perturbations, Metals (2017) DOL: 10:3390/met7120547 )

 The process of solidifying metals produces branch like internal micro-patterns. These micro patterns disturb the chemical homogeneity of cast materials. Having a better understanding of the recently observed "Bias Field's" role in the formation of these micro-patterns presents engineers with potential tools to make improvements in commonly used cast and wielded materials used in large and small technologies from automotive to medical instruments. The improvement of the structure of castings and weldments and other solidification processes require a correct understanding and application of the relevant physics. The undersigned believes that the discovery of the "Bias Field" will eventually lead to improvements in metallurgical processes . Improving the casting part of the process will require capital investment on the part of the metals industry. As the industry considers upgrades in heavy processing equipment in coming years it will be an opportune time to shift to cleaner and more controllable heat sources. In considering our fractal lens development, now is really an opportune time to shift our research funding search from electrical energy production grant sources to the metallurgy industry and other heat processing industries grant and research partner sources.  Moreover,  it appears that the bias for photovoltaic solar energy technology within the DOD and DOE continues unabated as the new administration heads into its second year in office. It appears time to expand our search for research funding into other areas more friendly to solar thermal energy / heat production or at lest not biased in favor of photovoltaic technology. One thing that photovoltaic technology is unlikely to produce is efficient high heat production. We should consider "Bias Field" research to be a parallel development with the fractal lens when it comes to the field of metallurgy and try to time our research to arrive at a working Fractal lens about the same time that the metallurgy industry will be considering expending capital on major infrastructure improvements driven by "Bias Field" applications some years from now.  

 As mentioned in previous reports we also should seek research funding within the desalinization process industry , another industry in need of highly efficient and inexpensive sources of high heat. In that industry each new plant is open to the adaptation of new and more efficient technologies. This eliminates the necessity to wait for a retrofit cycle to become marketable.

 I have added "Bias Field" research to my watch list of fractal lens parallel developments to watch. In terms of investment in our endowment fund or advice to future readers of our publications I see no companies in formation at this time with any basis in this technology. Investors, including the Helios Ruehls Endowment Fund  should look for new start ups in the future focused on the manufacture of metallurgy production equipment that incorporate the Bias Field theory into design. 

At this time I would appreciate any thoughts from our Physicists stock holders on the size of a proof of concept fractal lens meant only to physically confirm the heat gathering and directional capabilities of the lens vice our previous "industrial size" which was literally meant to fit into electrical energy generators of specified electrical energy generating capacities. It was the large size that incorporated  into our research plan a proof of concept that such a large size lens containing such a high number of fractal facets would not be a fragile glass latticeworks but could withstand industrial applications. I think in order to keep up with parallel developments that may drive a future era of major capital improvement expenditures in the Metals industries we need to divide our research funding into two parts, first lets physically demonstrate the heat gathering and directional capabilities of the Fractal lens and then lets see how big and powerful the current stage of the glass makers art can make it. One thing that a growing understanding of the "Bias Field" does is offer the possibility of major improvements in glass manufacture possibly one day eliminating size and fragility from our fractal lens applications considerations. 

Ray Bollinger
Helios Ruehls, Inc 
Applications Analysts. 



Solar Image from NASA

  Recently we reported on "The Bias Field" a new discovery in the physics of crystallization. It seems that already new understandings of the process of crystallization are yielding progress towards derivative new technologies. One of the most promising developments seems poised to emerge from the lab and onto the market fairly soon. "NanoCrystal" electrical generation and transmission seems just around the corner if only technological considerations vice economic and marketing considerations were controlling. 

   NanoCrystal technology refers to new power crystals that generate electricity. The emerging technologies evolving around these crystals have been lauded by some technology analysts as leading eventually to the unplugging of the globe from the electrical grid. Everything from your I phone to your toaster could go wireless if they are correct. The technology is real at the lab level. Market research clearly indicates that the public is ready to go wireless on any and everything that we either now have to plug in, or plug into a charger. This Nano Crystal technology isn't about a better battery  it's more about a wireless plug in, continuous feeding of useful electricity via portions of the radio spectrum to devices which then convert the energy into useful electricity, vice consuming energy from a battery. In fact this technology is already starting to advance a bit beyond the lab table.

  Energous Corporation (NASDAQ: WATT) has developed a wire free, distance electrical charger they call WattUp (R) and has already received Federal Communications Commission (FCC) certification for a field transmitter designed to send radio frequency based power to devices at a distance. FCC certification for distance charging under part 18 of the FCC regulations (Title 47 Code of Federal Regulations Part 18), This would appear to open up great new opportunities for the electronics industry. Indeed it eventually will. But our analyst think the stock of Energous Corporation is over hyped.  NanoCrystal technologies including "distance charging" is not going to make billionaires over night. The real developmental time lines are complex. This development hits as many manufacturers have spent a great deal of research and development money on new battery and programming formats for their long planned upgrades of successful electronic devices. They will probably not trash those developments to suddenly turn to developing products that can take advantage of NanoCrystal generated and transmitted electricity. Additionally this new technology while unplugging consumers, none the less requires some as yet undeveloped infrastructure to work. As presently approved by the FCC the  Energous Corporation distance charger only works at a distance of three feet. While the technology is scalable up so that at some point all an electronic device user has to do is enter a room or even a mall equipped with the chargers and it is charging or simply running off the supplied current as the user moves about the area at will. We can see this is going to sell one day and gain a major market share of the personal electronic device market and maybe one day even household appliances. But it won't be over night.

   Energous Corporation (NASDAQ: WATT) common stock was selling at about $20.16 a share today (February 14, 2018) that's up almost 57 cents since yesterday. But its down about 99 cents from about 5 days ago. (please note these figures reflect a cursory check once today with a single source and not a market study). If you are trying to decide whether or not to buy into this company be sure to research their fundamentals. Having some early intellectual property in the field and an apparent leading position and strong visibility doesn't translate to staying power to take advantage of their current position if the technology takes longer than expected to emerge as a grouping of marketable products. The Energous WattUp system is reminiscent of WIFI featuring interoperability between receivers and transmitters, regardless of manufacturers. Energous predicts the first WattUp transceivers will be marketed late this year or early in 2019. But who will develop and market the WattUp enabled electronic devices? This technology faces a complex roll out. Financial analysts are all over the map with the company's income projections for 2021 every where from $400 million to $25 billion and several points in between. This is why we suggest a strong investigation into the company's fundamentals. We think the projections of wide adaptation by 2021 are wildly optimistic given the complications related to the adaptation of the technology. We do think that the technology is inevitable.

 At Helios Ruels, Inc. our endowment fund investments  are based on a basic buy and hold philosophy. We are constantly doing technical investigations into various technologies, and theoretical  mathematical and physics concepts. One of the first things we examine when looking at such developments is the "state of the art". That information is vital to us as potential researchers should an "investigation" become an approved project. But we have learned that "state of the art research often leads to knowledge of the "state of the industry" and with it some often useful and reliable information on who the old reliable, and up and coming,developers are in any field of technology "investigated". As a skunk works reliant on the ups and downs of grants and research contract sales we decided to utilize this by product of our investigations to help us establish an "endowment fund" meant to help stabilize our fixed overhead through dividend income. We are not investment experts, we are not stock analysts, and our investments are not intensely managed. We operate on the concept of extensive research that helps us pick our stock purchases with only one rule controlling. Since we have neither time nor expertise to time the market; we won't hold a stock ten minutes that we would be afraid to hold ten years. Keep that in mind if you ever make any stock purchases based on our analysis. We are not stock market experts. We don't market securities. We don't charge for our information. We share our insights for free. Be advised such insights may only be worth what you paid for them.

 Another company that we came across during this line of inquiry included one working on battery improvements involving graphene super capacitors.  Fisker Nanotech / Battery is developing a graphene super capacitor based battery apparently designed for electric automobiles that will fully charge within one minute for 4 to 5,000 miles of usage). Fast charging may precede wireless charging / running technologies  into the market place. Most people want to get about 5 years out of their electronics so if fast and powerful charging and charge holding precede wireless charging into the market anticipate the real adaptation of the wireless technology could be delayed by about five years over the more optimistic present day projections.

 Electrical generation/transmission/charging/ running are not the only emerging technologies coming out of the new discoveries in crystal formation that we first described in our report on THE BIAS FIELD . Emerging technologies based on our newer understanding of the formation of solids especially crystals include the bio medical field. Natural Nano (NAND) is a New York State company developing nanocites from earthen materials with unique adhesion characteristics which can be programmed chemically to adhere to cancer cells and release cancer killing chemo directly to the cancerous cells. The potential applications in paints and coatings should be obvious as well .

  We hope you find this information on developments on these particular technologies on the  cutting edge of physics helpful for whatever purpose , but if you are inclined to use it as investment information don't forget to do your home work. Nothing in this report should be viewed as investment advice .
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------WILL BLUE GAS REPLACE ELECTRIC VEHICLES

A Helios Ruehls,Inc. Report


Right now we notice that several syndicated stock market "advisers "are "all in" for "Blue Gas", some calling it the "Telsa Killer" some are predicting up to 1000% gains in share prices and huge dividends in the near term. Supposedly "Blue Gas" technology"will drive electric automobiles off the market long before electric vehicles have achieved their anticipated market share. Helios Ruehls, Inc. is "Net worked skunk works". We maintain a net work of researchers and academics who may be stock owners in our corporation but are not employees, As we seek research assignments and grants in the usual manner of a "skunk works" we are not supporting a lab or staff during our "dry spells". When we need a lab one or more of our "Fellows " provide us with access to their labs in the two universities that we have dealt with so far. With virtually no fixed overhead what do we do with the corporate funds between grants and paid research assignments? We invest it in our "endowment fund". This is a stock market based fund that we maintain and grow to help provide for an eventual expanded fixed over head when revenues are slow. We are constantly watching the realm of high tech common stocks for bargains. Our philosophy in investing in high tech stocks is quite different from those of most well known market analysts. So with all the hype over "Blue Gas" we aren't jumping in  because it doesn't meet our institutional investment criteria. We don't give stock market trading advice we only explain our investment philosophy on different technologies. If you have the time and expertise to "time the market" our decisions tend to run opposite yours. Our "endowment fund" is doing just fine without the big ups and downs of the market. Of course if you are "day trader" dependent on buying low and selling high our philosophy won't work for you. Many ordinary people out there have tried the time the market approach but find they can't devote the necessary time to it and all too often miss out on the gains and take a fast slide to the bottom. Some ordinary people may be more comfortable with our investment philosophy though it is institutional in nature. Here we share that philosophy and apply it to the emerging "Blue Gas" technologies. Our investment philosophy in a nut shell.

1. We don't want to hold for ten minutes any stock that we'd be uncomfortable holding for ten years.

2, We do buy some stocks in very well researched companies with real staying power and potential for growth in stock prices but little or no dividends. Our intention is to buy low and sell high but OVER THE YEARS. 

3. When we do have profit from the sale of one of our rising common stock prices companies we invest that money in reliable high dividend stocks. Where possible those dividends go toward buying more stock. But we trying to raise revenues to pay for fixed overhead so eventually we will take those dividends when needed to cover fixed overhead when research assignments and grants (sales) are low. 

4. When acquiring any stock (expected rising common share prices or dividends) we look at the corporate fundamentals and history. Even a very new company may have good fundamentals in terms of product or service, protected place in the market, sound financial management . etc..  We buy and hold, on a long term but not forever. We stay away from stocks that require daily or weekly attention to make a profit from. 



"Blue Gas is simply uncarburated water gas burning with a non luminous flame. It is in use already mostly as a synthesis gas and source of hydrogen.

"Blue Gas" is completely different from the older "Blau Gas" named after its inventor Hermann Blau of Germany. No longer in widespread use it was an illuminating gas created by decomposing mineral oils which by a heating and compressing process created Naptha.
File:Hermann Blauf.jpg
 Chemist Hermann Blau, inventor of the so called "Blaugas".(PD) 


"Today's "Blue Gas"is part of the long anticipated "Hydrogen Engine Revolution". It sometimes generates media hype as "fuel from water". There is also a lot of hype generated for "Blue Gas" as a hydrogen generator. The great hope is that since this fuel is made from two of the most common elements on earth (water and hydrogen) that it will be dirt cheap when it comes to powering vehicles. This may eventually be so, but right now and into the foreseeable near future there are technological, distribution and manufacturing costs issues to be resolved. However the first Blue Gas distribution companies are appearing , as are the first vehicles to be powered by this new fuel. Most of these vehicles are in commercial fleets serving metropolitan areas similar to the vehicles using propane and other novel fuels. These vehicles are not on the highway as they are dependent on a fuel source that they can only get at the home base supplier, restricting long distance travel.

 By contrast the electric vehicles that some stock analysts expect the blue gas vehicles to run out of the market can find electricity anywhere and the existing fuel and service centers around the nation and world are gearing up for them with metered out lets, a minor modification of existing service centers since all have electricity already. We believe that the improvements in automotive electrical propulsion technologies including the hybrids ( gas and electrical propulsion) are about to take off and will have many years of market success. These vehicles have proven reliability and economy of operations and the ability to get fuel within the existing automotive infrastructure. Consider that the Hydrogen Council believes that there will be about 5,000 hydrogen filling stations globally by 2030. By comparison there are about 150,000 conventional filling stations in the United States alone able to service with little or no new investment, gasoline, diesel, and electric vehicles. Will "Blue Gas vehicles" eventually become dominant? Maybe but they are at least 10 years away from a real start into the mass market. NA based on 5,000 refueling stations globally it appears to us that the market in 10 years will include some well planned commercial truck routes but even then Blue Gas vehicles will not enjoy the freedom of the Interstates or be very useful except for servicing cargo "Hub facilities". The  final delivery to the door of the consignee will still be by engines in common usage today.
Vector clip art of red truck on the road It will be another 10 years before "Blue Gas"long haul vehicles will be in use and then only on special routes. 

 What of the promise of "Cheap Fuel"? No matter how inexpensive the raw materials (water and hydrogen), no one can sell any fuel for less than the costs of production and distribution. Those costs are emerging but far from fully known at the moment.  So hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe. That's a fact. Moreover  the hydrogen fuel cell reaction product is water. Finally it is a fact that  there is an ongoing effort to overcome the technical, operational and economic difficulties of hydrogen propulsion.  Helios Ruehls Inc. thinks it is more than 10 years before it is any more than a growing list of alternatives to oil driven and nuclear power it’s not going to happen overnight. Still, some stocks are now showing some progress. Ballard Power Systems (BLDP is up from about $3 to about $8 over the past year) Plug Power (PLUG ,is  up from about $1.30 to about $3.20 over the same period).

 These are not the 1,000% gains that some stock analysts are predicting.If any such phenomena appears we think it will be a result of hype and will be very short lasting. Day traders can afford to watch  such an investment like a hawk and sell just before the crash. Money made on timing a hype driven stock price is just as real as a value driven price rise, but the value driven price rise is here to stay long term. Fail to hit the mark just right with the hype driven stock and you could lose your "investment" which we see as closer to a bet than an investment, but then of course there are professional gamblers who make a good livings placing bets. We can make no recommendations but believe that some emerging companies like Ballard and Plug exhibit the kind of growth that is realistic,and  some survivability over time. These things could be a sign of good fundamentals within these but their recent rise in stock prices could also be influenced by the current hype surrounding "Blue Gas". If you care to research this market you will find a list of companies making or distributing "Blue Gas" or equipment associated with its production and distribution at Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_fuel_cell_manufacturers.

 Again we are not stock market analysts but we do analyze stocks at least weekly for inclusion in our endowment fund portfolio. Our investment philosophy is very conservative. Probably too conservative for most people. But it works for us and may work for those of you who want to stay away from "day trading". We firmly believe that any investment portfolio should contain some stocks. We also believe that the stock market must be approached like a casino. When you enter the gambling casino there seems to be no limit of random number generator games like the slot machines. Your chances of beating these random number generator games are about the same as being struck by lightening in your living room. However Black Jack can be a money maker for the skilled , its also a random number generator but within a limited range that once you understand how to play the averages you are more likely to win than to lose, though if you are noticed winning too often you will find yourself banned from the casino. The great casino that is the stock market will never ban you for consistently winning. But you must develop skills to play the stock game. Look for the fundamentals. Our view of "Blue Gas" is that most of the companies haven't quite been in the game long enough to really judge their management fundamentals, and the product while extremely promising will not be the overnight "Telsa Killing", technological revolution that the present hype is propelled by. Now would be a good time to buy "Blue Gas" stocks if you could predict which companies will still be around 10 years from now. Some potential winners are emerging, but we don't perceive them clearly yet.  




eye anatomy
The Human Eye, over simplifying a bit;  a sort of photon catching and sorting machine


 The U.S. Defense Advanced Research Agency (DARPA) to whom   Helios Ruehls has on occasion applied for research grants, is highly interested in the evolution of autonomous drones. How autonomous a drone can be is determined by the level of artificial intelligence that can be applied and the purpose of the drone. There are few moral considerations in terms of combat with drone intelligence gathering and recon. But drones carrying and capable of applying deadly force, at present require a human in the loop, particularly the shoot don't shoot decision making loop. But even a weaponized drone may be equipped to proceed to the target area on its own, orbit a predetermined area, and "check in" with its human controller when ready to begin the next phase of operations. 

 Despite the availability of high resolution TV cameras small enough to be no burden on today's drones air lift capacity, drones don't actually "see". What humans actually perceive when they "see" is a processed image. Our "vision" is created only in part by the image on our Retina. Our actual vision is a "processed" one created in the brain. The retina receives many picture elements that in camera and optical physics language we call "pixels". These pixels are transmitted to the brain via the optic nerve. However, the optic nerve compared to the brain has a very limited capacity for the transmission of these "pixels" in computer terms we might say the optic nerve has "limited bandwidth".
The retina sends only changes in the basic pixel array as they occur and the brain maintains the "basic image" and adjusts it for the changes. 
Related image
Simple camera imaging system

By comparison camera / computer "vision" programs must create large images and then compare them bit by bit using complex algorithms to comprehend what is happening. Such programming has worked on large terrain change navigation systems, but not so well on looking for humans moving between and among buildings. A live TV camera trained on the compound and observed by a human has been the only trust worthy solution so far. The inability to really "see" has imposed a limit on artificial intelligence used in autonomous or near autonomous drones.  Beyond the mission related ethical / moral considerations lack of real "vision" impedes the development of certain aspects of drone self executing navigational systems.

 Long before we resolve the law of armed conflict ethical issues of when there must be a human "controller" in the loop for weaponized drones we are going to have to improve the ability of drones to see. Not all navigational tasks can be solved by an AI drone knowing its longitude and latitude. We need among other things micro drones that can determine what room in a house they are in. Humans often make up in many ingenious ways for damage to their "sensor array" (sight, hearing, smell, touch). However  for many human activities no matter how intelligent the human, a full sensory array is needed. We can't, for example" utilize blind cops or air craft pilots. Sensory perception can enhance or limit the application of "intelligence". 

 Darpa is making progress on developing true artificial vision to operate in tandem with artificial intelligence. But don't expect the resulting technology to be very closely held by US defense Department interests. DARPA is providing partial funding of an organization based in Zurich, Switzerland known as "iniLabs"which is blazing a trail in the realm of artificial vision. The resulting findings aren't likely to become the exclusive property of the US Department of Defense. 

 The human, or for that matter bird eye/ brain system, does not have to continuously generate large complex images and then compare them bit by bit. The eye/ brain system generates an image the bulk of which is held by the brain the rest of which is capable of receiving rapid small changes. To the optical physicists of "iniLabs" these changes are called "events". Their system which they call a "Dynamic Vision Sensor" combines a conventional (camera like) "imager"with a new invention called an "Event Monitor". 

In experiments so far with their "Dynamic Vision Sensor", the "iniLab" device has proven the system to be about 130% more accurate than previous devices relying only on event sensing and about 85% more accurate than a camera image.The combination is definitely a big improvement over camera based big image comparison computer applications and produces a far more graphic image than previous "event sensors". The lesson of the eye / brain system is that improvement in sensor provided information processing power nets a greater return than improvements in the actual sensor. In humans, the eye developed to the point where it could transmit depth (at least in tandem sensors) and color, but the optical nerve never really increased in carrying (think band width) capacity. It didn't need to , the brain's interpretative ability increased faster and no real need for improvement was needed in the actual sensors (eyes) or transmitters (optical nerves) 

 Something similar is going on in artificial vision. There is more research money available for computer science than optical physics and computer processing speed continues to expand much faster than optical physics is developing more accurate image capture and transmission systems. The "intiLab" project may indicate that we are reaching a long term apex in the optical physics part of the artificial vision evolution, but that may not be any more of a block to progress to artificial vision than it was in the evolution of human vision. 


  Helios Ruehls, Inc has had some experience with both optical imaging and human vision gleaned in our "Yellow Lens Project". We had interactions between optical physicists and optometrists, and ophthalmologists. We developed some institutional understanding and some academic connections but so far we lack the in network expertise in computer science to play a major role in the development of artificial vision technology. But we don't need a major role to get our foot in the door. 

 There is a great interest in artificial vision beyond the US Department of Defense. We must be on the look out for under served opportunities in the commercial sector, and use our understanding of the artificial vision concept to spot potential investment opportunities for our "endowment fund".  Our potential for entry into the developmental research for artificial vision is another reason for us to consider revising our corporate vision to encompass a more broadly based "skunk works" approach to more types of optical physics work than the pursuit of the fractal lens. We can not drop projects like the fractal lens but the academic / economic politics of the moment are far from optimal for large grant funding. Contract research in the search for artificial vision won't yield us big intellectual property profits but could start to generate regular income. 

 It is time to consider the question, can we survive if our only activity is the development of our own exclusive intellectual property? Is the combination of selling supportive temporary research services not necessary both to an earlier generation of revenue but also as an attractant to our academic corporate participants ("Sweat equity partners"). Our corporate experience so far informs us there will always be political, military, and academic politics affecting research funding. While we must push for funding of our projects that can give us the big pay offs in terms of proprietary intellectual property, selling research support services on the optical physics projects currently in vogue is a wise idea. Going into publishing is a another wise idea that keeps us in the public eye , offers our academic sweat equity stock holders something they value, and generates useful revenue.  



 Computer numerical control (CNC) is a form of automation of machine tools by computers executing programed machine control commands. Until relatively recently production machinery used in manufacturing was controlled hand wheels, levers, or mechanically by cams. The previous and still functioning technology was monitored where necessary by analog type sensors and displays which prompted human operator manual adjustment. In modern CNC systems the manufacture of mechanical parts and other items is highly automated. The part or other object to be manufactured has its mechanical dimensions defined using computer aided drafting (CAD) software. The CAD designed software then is translated into manufacturing process directives by computer aided manufacturing software. The manufacturing process directives are transformed by post processor software into the needed specific commands required for the machine to produce the desired object and then down loaded into the specific unit of manufacturing (CNC) machine.

 Unlike the trends in 3D printing so far, any particular component part of a whole may require the employment of any number of different tools such as drills , saws, presses, etc.. These tools are often combined into a combination of tools called a "cell" capable of control by CNC programing. In some installations a number of different machines are used via an external controller and human or robotic line operators move the component from machine to machine. In either case the steps in the manufacturing process are highly automated and produces an object that closely matches the original CAD design.

 Now, if you have been following 3 D printing technology you know that the CNC systems evolved separately within the realm of "reductive manufacturing". "Reductive manufacturing " refers to the manufacturing processes common since the "Industrial Revolution" where in quantities of various raw materials are converted into useful objects. In the process, materials such as wood, steel, etc. are reduced from boards, sheets, or bars and shaped into component parts, usually leaving quite a bit of "wasted material" on the shop floor". 3D printing processes of manufacture are by contrast not "reductive" in nature but produce items by layering powdered materials into forms of completed objects with no waste from left over areas of plates, bars, or boards. The 3D process has been becoming more viable for more objects of manufacture for a number of years now. Quite a number of items in commerce will still require reductive processes for quite some time into the foreseeable future. Both CNC and 3 D printing processes lend themselves to computer control or coordination. It was inevitable that the two technologies would start to blend at some point and we are starting to see that now. The combination of 3 D printing and CNC reductive manufacturing tools offers manufacturing great potential savings in labor , cost of materials , and production time. This blended technology just starting to emerge now is no doubt the next wave of major innovation in manufacturing industries.

 The technology will be a while both evolving into its apex state, and in commercial adoption. First, the blended technology is in its infancy, and where it is adopted older analog, reductive capital equipment will have to be scrapped or sold off at fire sale prices to third world interests, who won't want it for long. At Helios Ruehls we are observing these developments and trying to identify the safe bets for future investment. We search such things for the purposes of finding high tech investment opportunities for our endowment fund and for customers to whom we can sell research services. It is never our intention to outright own any of these companies simply to develop stable sources of investment income to support our fixed overhead, and potential customers for our services. We will share with our readers any thing useful that we find of investment interest in field which is new to our monitoring efforts. 

 Meanwhile for our younger readers we can tell you that CNC technologies project a growing field of employment that you can prepare for now. Some of the job titles include but are not limited to:

CNC Programmer/ Machine Shop Technician

Machine Tool Maintenance Technician

  CNC Field Service Technician

Electro Mechanical Technician

 The jobs we looked at had compensation ranges from $17 per hour starting pay for new trainees to $ 65 an hour for journey men technicians. Educational requirements for these technician jobs universally included a high school diploma and a variety of post secondary technical training. Recommended course to take in Voc-Tech school or a two year technical colleges include: 

Basic Electricity
Electronics (experience as an "Electronic Technician" petty officer in the Navy, Coast Guard, or Non Commissioned Officer in the Air Force appears highly valued )

Automation Processes

Pneumatics and Hydraulics

Automated Manufacturing

Programmable Logic Controllers

Process Control Devices

Computer Programming 

 These courses need not be part of a degree program nor the most exhaustive or comprehensive in nature. These are the subjects that a successful candidate for a CNC technician corporate training program should have formal training or exposure to and or some work experience in. Again as we have noted military / naval electronic technician petty officers and non commissioned officers at the end of a four year active service period generally have some exposure to training in all of these subjects and serious work exposure to them as well. Because of the demand for these types of skills the military services have a difficult time holding on to such enlisted members and some have provided fast track career paths to the top NCO / CPO pay grades or to Warrant officer status to be competitive with private industry. A high School diploma is an absolute necessity to enter such enlisted programs and some post high school exposure to the above listed subjects is a clear indicator of success in the military electronics field to military program screeners. Successful completion of a four year tour of active duty in the military / naval electronics field is an indicator or both the necessary background knowledge and a good work ethic to the civilian human resources departments.  CNC technology which started back in the 1940s and 50s and is still evolving rapidly. As it melds with 3 D printing technologies it appears to continue to offer new , challenging, and lucrative opportunities to properly prepared technicians with less expensive preparation than a university degree in electronic engineering . 

 The university educated seeking careers in the management of CNC technologies or CNC driven manufacturing companies should have exposure to electrical and mechanical engineering courses, and business management courses. Those seeking design careers will probably need post graduate education that includes exposure to both mechanical design and computer programming. Looks like a great emerging career field for the young. As far as investment opportunities, we have no specific suggestions at this time. As we become aware of such we will either update this post or generate a new one focused on investment. 


 As many of you know from either long term following of the blog or by reading our introduction to the crew (aka production staff of the American Admiralty Books Blog) we as a group are highly interested in science, particularly the nautical arts and sciences but also all hard sciences that have utility in the maritime world. 

 Optical physics has had utility in the maritime world since before the invention of the Quartermaster's Long Glass (telescope). There have been many improvements to the Long Glass over time including the invention of the binoculars giving the conning officer and the look out depth perception when looking at objects at great distances.

File:US Navy 070310-N-9909C-002 Retired Senior Chief Fire Control Technician Hank Wristen, passes the ship's long glass to Chief Warrant Officer Robert McLaughlin.jpg 
The Long Glass is now often used in naval ceremony. Pictured above. NEW ORLEANS (March 10, 2007) – Retired Senior Chief Fire Control Technician Hank Wristen, a prior crew member aboard the WW II heavy cruiser USS New Orleans (CA 32), and the second ship to bear the name, passes the ship's long glass to Chief Warrant Officer Robert McLaughlin. McLaughlin became the first Officer of the Deck aboard the Navy's newest commissioned warship, the amphibious transport dock ship USS New Orleans (LPD 18) on March 10, 2007.  US Navy Photo # 07310-N-9

The binocular evolved into the "Big Eyes" (really big pedestal mounted binoculars) giving a wider field of view and distance perception exceeding even the later versions of the Long Glass. Laser Range Finders, and target acquisition related devices, are among the more recent contributions to navigational safety and naval combat proficiency to emerge from the labs of the optical physics departments of universities and companies. Optical physics is not alien to the nautical arts and sciences. 

File:US Navy 050419-N-7526R-060 Cryptologic Technician 1st Class Jasen Williams, right, mans the Big Eyes binoculars as Operations Specialist Seaman Stephani Wood stands by, waiting to pass along any instructions as USS Blue Ridge (.jpg
Cryptologic Technician 1st Class Jasen Williams, right, mans the "Big Eyes" binoculars as Operations Specialist Seaman Stephani Wood stands by, waiting to pass along any instructions as USS Blue Ridge (LCC 19) gets underway. U.S. Navy Photo # 050419-N-7

 When we were approached by Helios Ruehls Inc. to serve as an experimental forum for their fledgling ventures into popular publishing we saw no conflict, and we perceived an opportunity. 

 You may recall that this blog started out with advertising and as an Amazon books thresh hold. Then the Democrats won the governorship in the our state of business origin and banking.  By administrative fiat of dubious legality, the Democrats placed a sales tax upon all Internet purchases by the inhabitants of the state. Amazon immediately stopped offering their thresh hold arrangement within the state of our incorporation. We had to publish notices to our visitors that purchases made over any links we provided generated no revenues for us and that individuals within states having an Internet sales tax had responsibility to report all Internet purchases to their state internal revenue departments at state income tax time and to pay all out standing sales tax if the on line vendor did not collect sales tax. Pretty soon we had no advertisers either. 

 Enter Helios Ruehls,Inc. looking for publishing consultants and a test bed for ideas. At the time the blog continued to exist only as a sort of hobby activity for a couple of staffers. Zero advertising meant zero funding. But as they say in show biz "if you have a hit you have a hit, but if you have an audience you have a career." Thanks to all 600,000 + of you (and growing) the blog seems to have a life of its own , if you will "a career". Helios Ruehls helps us focus more than we would normally on the hard sciences particularly optical physics. While not all of their posts have direct maritime application we hope that we are building some new categories of visitors. The day will come when Helios Ruehls will launch their own unique blog site, but thanks to our partnership not as a completely unknown entity on the Internet. If thanks to liberal progressive socialism (Democratic Party politics) we never recover our vendor status and advertisers the experience of "operating in cooperation" with Helios Ruehls, Inc. has served us well as consultants. We look forward for at least the 2018 -19 period to continuing to bring you news from the world of optical physics and hard sciences via Helios Ruehls, Inc. 

 If you have a technology to sell that relates to the maritime world and would like to test the waters of the Internet drop us a comment in the comment section below with your contact information and we will get back to you. Both AAB and Helios Ruehls are open and happy to consider consulting, research contracts (Helios Ruehls, Inc.) , and assignments involving market testing, skunk works lab projects (Helios Ruehls, Inc. & AAB), and cooperative endeavors of various sorts involving the maritime disciplines and applied physics. 

For the Editorial Board

Johnas Presbyter 




Image from renewable energy focus .com article by George Marsh dated 14 Feb.2014
Please go to the linked article for a more detailed explanation of how Wave energy converts work.

    Anyone who has ever stood on a beach and listened to the waves lapping the shore is intuitively aware that ocean waves carry considerable kinetic energy. We've long known that about falling water; and the water wheel driven grist mill has been in operation for centuries. More recent is the water driven turbine. However, a mechanism to harness the in and out varying tempo of the moving water of an ocean wave just wasn't as intuitive as the water wheel and the turbine. By the time we seriously turned our attention to the challenge, the piston driven internal combustion engine, converting an up and down motion via a crank shaft to a rotary motion  generating drive to wheels, had been around for more than a century. None the less despite the less than cutting edge image of the piston the idea of harnessing the kinetic energy of the ocean's waves seems pretty Buck Rogers to a lot of us who haven't been following developments in this field regularly. Our purpose in this post however is not to explain the how of the technology but simply to report on the latest application that we recently came across in the pages of WORKBOATMagazine. We found an explanation of the how it's done part in an article by George Marsh in Renewable Energy Focus .com 

 WORKBOAT  which we always link you to in our news section reported in their March 2018 issue that the Portland Oregon ship yard VIGOR is building a 125' by 59' wave energy converter buoy for Ocean Energy Group and its subsidiary Ocean Energy USA. This latest wave energy converter will be sent to the U.S. Navy's Wave Energy Test Site ("WETS" in "NAVSPEAK") on the windward, and hence wavy side of Oahu. This is a first of its kind for the Navy WETS and is partly funded by the DOE to the total tune (for the whole experiment not just the energy converter buoy) of about $12 million. A little more than half that figure went into just the wave energy converter buoy. Also participating in the project is Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland ("SEAI" in "NAVSPEAK").
Our research reveals that while this is the latest application of the Wave Energy Converter, it is far from the first. We now know how to build these things . It probably happened while we were napping.


Mapping The Ocean With Three Dimensions Of Data

Helios Ruehls, Inc. Science and Technology Watch:
Article published in GCN by 
Image NASA

American Admiralty Books Safety & Privacy Policies   EU VISITORS WARNING POSSIBLE COOKIES AHEAD

"This month, 50 years of data collected from oceans around the world -- salinity, temperature, oxygen levels and nutrients, mapped by location and depth -- was released to the public along with tools to help researchers make better use of the data."

"Working number of government agencies, including the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, geospatial data company Esri mapped 37 physically and chemically distinct volumetric regions or ecological marine units (EMUs) that provide a 3-D perspective of the ocean's complexity. READ THE ENTIRE ARTICLE @ GCN






The "dark" side of the moon, as photographed from NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. The Dragon's Chang’e-4 has landed inside the darker patch near the south pole.Image by NASA


 China recently landed an unmanned vehicle on the dark side of the moon. That side has been seen from orbit many times but this is the first roving vehicle known so far to touch down specifically to explore the "dark side". The "dark side" actually does get some sunlight but always faces away from earth. The mission may be useful from a geological viewpoint in that it may help illuminate the origins of the moon, and provide some hints as to how and where mineral mining might be profitable. The lander is named the Chang'e-4 for a moon goddess of Chinese mythology. The unmanned lander mission illustrates that China has advanced in space far enough to land vehicles on the moon. Space experts predict that the lunar explorer, a useful mission in its own right is a part and parcel of China's intended manned moon mission. If the Chinese land men on the moon any time soon theirs will be the first manned moon landing in roughly 50 years. 

 A Chinese moon landing is troublesome to contemplate. First, the Chinese performance in the South China Sea indicates a serious disregard for established international law. While the US was the first manned mission to land on the moon  we made it very clear that we made no territorial claims on the moon and that no single nation should make territorial claims anywhere in the solar system. The US went at its own expense but stated they went for "all mankind". The dragon doesn't work that way. Their claims in the South China Sea extend even into the established territorial sea of the Philippines and they have trespassed and even established artificial islands in the recognized exclusive economic zones of their neighbors. It should be cause for alarm that China may soon be landing men on any moons or planets within the solar system. 
 Some years ago we drew parallels between admiralty law and space exploration concerning outlying satellite territories. We think that as the only inhabited planet in the solar system we have an exclusive right to develop the other planets. But the United States sees this as a right of mankind, the planet Earth in a collective sense, not a new colonialism to be carried out in competition by the planet's nation states. Here is how we saw it a few years ago, and we still see it that way. And we still see the Dragon on the world oceans as a "claim jumper" and fear their attitude once they become accomplished space travelers: 

"The battle over the open versus the closed seas likely parallels any existing order in space. One of the first precepts of maritime international law is that the sea beyond territorial waters is a common highway open to all on "innocent passage".  Where territorial waters enclose or infringe on international straits and passages linking the seas, an international servitude exists, giving ships of all nations a right of innocent passage. Adjacent coastal states also have various exclusive rights by way of the Outer Continental Shelf Convention and the most recent "Law of the Sea Convention"to regulate certain fisheries and exploit bottom resources, especially mineral resources out to about 200 miles from shore varying a bit with circumstances. But beyond 12 miles from shore all ships have the right of innocent passage. Beyond the various Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) the sea surface, the water column, and the bottom and subsurface bottom are legally in the international "commons". This concept of "freedom of the seas" was not adopted automatically and is still fought by some nations today. Wars were fought over the issue and may be fought again. However the logic of freedom of the seas seems settled and irrefutable. The commerce between nations is carried on the seas. Without freedom of the seas the global economy is impossible to maintain. The vast seas which once separated cultures now unite them. It is likely that the same logic was long ago applied in space if older space faring cultures exists, especially if there are numbers of them. The likely first rule of space is that it is regarded as a common highway open to all.

 The Second likely rule of space is similar to the modern maritime concept of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)  and some ancient Polynesian concepts concerning uninhabited islands. Many , if not most of the islands of Polynesia are simply too small, too low lying, or lack sources of fresh water and were labeled by the European explorers as "uninhabited". But actually these out lying islands with no permanent human inhabitants were in fact owned, tended,and  were important food sources for Polynesian societies living sometimes several days sail away on larger fresh water endowed islands. The people of the larger permanently inhabited islands would visit the out lying islands to harvest coconuts, fish including tending saltwater ponds created as a form of aquaculture, and plant, tend, and harvest other crops. The truth was that the larger islands could not support their human populations without these additional crop lands and fishing grounds. One of the reasons we will push out into our solar system is that our ever expanding population on this planet needs the additional resources. So a probable second rule of any interstellar legal regime is that in any planetary system with intelligent life on any one planet, the inhabitants of that planet have the exclusive legal right to develop economically the out lying uninhabited planets. Apparently, if we give credence to astronaut reported UFO sightings, the right of innocent passage for all space faring civilizations remains. 

 A third probably sure bet is that in approaching anything like the port towns that Columbus saw on the Mayan coast, there will be a regular routine and procedures for formal entry with due notice to the authorities. If we ever find anything looking remotely like a space port we'd better hang well back and attempt to establish contact before attempting to enter or even draw close.. "

 This latest Chinese space mission illustrates even more space capability than that suggested by simply a planetary landing. Communications are difficult on the far side of the moon for mission controllers. Before landing the lunar probe the Chinese put a communications satellite in orbit around the moon to facilitate their communications with their probe. The Chinese are doing things now that the United States did in the 60s and 70s, but their achievements will seem far more impressive since we haven't stunned the world in space in decades. Many adults today weren't even born in the 60s and 70s. The Chinese reruns will look like something out of the future vice the past. The dragon is in space to stay and they will have no qualms about bringing the outer planets into the orbit of the "Middle Kingdom". We are living the Chinese curse; "May you live in interesting times".

man wearing white top using MacBookYou may have noticed that we went over a month 
with no visible work on this blog. We lost our dashboard and all  the King's horses 
and all the King's men couldn't put it together again. But IT Tech Joshua Falgout did.
 If you need a cracker jack IT tech in the New Orleans/ Baton Rouge area 
phone Joshua Falgout at 318 331 7843

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